Proteins that bind to immunosuppressive drugs, such as FK506, rapamycin and cyclophilin A (CsA), have been called FKBPs (FK506/rapamycin-binding proteins) and CYPs or cyclophilins (cyclosporin A-binding proteins), respectively, being collectively referred to immunophilins . Additionally, the ROF1-HSP90.1 complex was localized in the nucleus during exposure to heat stress, whereas it was localized in the cytoplasm under normal conditions . The 27 identified OsCYPs can be classified as either SD members with a CYP catalytic domain or MD members with other functional domains in addition to a single CYP domain. 2003, 30: 296-303. The full rice genome has now been sequenced, allowing the identification and localization of genes related to stress tolerance . However, the repertoire and amino acid sequence of rice FKBPs are more similar to those of Arabidopsis than Chlamydomonas, from which they have a distant genetic distance. Furthermore, the tissue specific expression of water stress responding Os IMMs and the visual localization of some of these IMMs were examined. B.O. For example, some prokaryotes do not contain any FKBPs or CYPs, and some prokaryotes encode only one family of ribosome-associated PPIase known as trigger factors (TIFs), which aid in the folding of nascent polypeptide chains on ribosomes . Google Scholar. 10.1038/nature02899. j, kOrthologous immunophilin and % identity (ID) were analysed by blastp http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ of the NCBI database of the complete proteome of A. thaliana and C. reinhardtii: IP, immunophilin. The targeting signal of putative chloroplast (thylakoid lumen) localized OsFKBPs was manually adjusted (boxed): double Arg residues (--); the hydrophobic stretches following the double Args (---). – broadleaf rice P: Species Oryza longistaminata A. Chev. From organ transplantation to plant biology. However, we could not find the CaM domain C-terminal area of OsFKBP72 using a CaM prediction program, unlike with AtFKBP72 (PAS1), a putative CaM domain in the C-terminal area due to the binding of calmodulin in vitro . Biochemical analysis and sequence analysis following genome sequencing projects have identified a large number of IMMs and, in particular, putative IMMs in many organisms [4–6]. For the others, it has been difficult to match the ortholog relations . FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs) and cyclophilins (CYPs) are abundant and ubiquitous proteins belonging to the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) superfamily, which regulate much of metabolism through a chaperone or an isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. Plants were grown in a controlled chamber with a photoperiod of 12 h light at 28°C and 12 h dark at 22°C. O. rufipogon is a perennial type found in tropical and subtropical Asia, South America and Australia. However, many IMMs in plants may serve a more diverse array of functions, especially in relation to photosynthesis, but may also involve a significant amount of redundancy . Where possible in considering characteristics such as > 50% identity in homology, the same subcellular location and the same domain architecture as with Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas IMM proteins, we used the same suffix numbers for genes whose orthologs could be deduced. Although dramatic changes in the phenotypes of PPIase-deficient higher organisms are very limited, they suggest that IMMs have been evolving toward highly specialized functions from microorganisms to higher organisms. The RT-PCR reactions were repeated three times and representative results from one experiment were shown. From these results, we suggest that At/OsCYP20-2 maintains the homeostatic state of thylakoid lumen under stress, although it may be unrelated to its PPIase activity. Moreover, it was also expressed strongly (Additional file 1) as in Arabdopsis AtFKBP12 and Chlamydomonas FKB12, with the largest number of ESTs [4, 6]. As a result, IMMs are highly conserved ubiquitous proteins found in most organisms and in all major subcellular compartments. 10.1007/s00438-008-0318-5. The 29 OsFKBPs identified could be classified into single-domain (SD) members with a FKBP catalytic domain, and multiple-domain (MD) members with other functional domains in addition to a single or multiple FKBP domains (Figure 2). AtCYP20-2, the ortholog of OsCYP20-2, the only CYP to show PPIase activity in the thylakoid lumen, was increased when plants were exposed to strong light or low temperature, and it has already been suggested that this PPIase plays a functional role in acclimation responses [52, 61, 62]. Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ: CULSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. 2005, 6: 277-300. Marivet J, Margis-Pinheiro M, Frendo P, Burkard G: Bean cyclophilin gene-expression during plant development and stress conditions. 14 OsFKBPs containing OsTIG belong to MD members. Nature. Plant Cell. Rubin GM, et al: Comparative genomics of the eukaryotes. Biochem. Brink S, Bogsch EG, Edwards WR, Hynds PJ, Robinson C: Targeting of thylakoid proteins by the ΔpH-driven twin-arginine transduction pathway requires a specific signal in the hydrophobic domain in conjunction with the twin-arginine motif. Plant Sci. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple crops, feeding almost half of the world population. 10.1007/BF00040698. Science. In OsCYPs, the expression of the OsCYP21-4 and -59b genes were induced significantly under desiccation stress, whereas expression for OsCYP19-2, -20-2, and -57 was only slightly increased. Plant Physiol. The Biology and Ecology of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Australia The Office of the Gene Technology Regulator O. sativa has a relatively small (430 million base pairs) diploid genome (2n = 24). Plant Physiol. 1994, 91: 984-988. Copyright Â© 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. were reported in fine-rooted plants like rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica genotype Dongjin) seeds were germinated and grown in Yoshida nutrient solution, which consists of NH 4 NO 3 (1.43 mM), NaH 2 PO 4.2H 2 O (0.37 mM), K 2 SO 4 (0.5 mM), CaCl 2 (1.0 mM) and MgSO 4.7H 2 O (1.6 mM) . For example, 11 FKBPs and 5 CYPs localize to the chloroplast thylakoid lumen in Arabidopsis, creating the largest IMM family in any cellular organism. CAS The OsCYP19-3 may have a distinct function from OsCYP19-2, considering that OsCYP19-3 has been survived a long period of evolution in most plants, including Arabidopsis and rice (data not shown). 2000, 275: 16030-16036. However, considering our results indicating that the OsCYP19-4 gene was expressed in young rice plants without pistils or in the embryogenesis stage under salt stress, the full role of this protein remains to be clarified. 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2002.01420.x. Chloroplast-located SD CYPs OsCYP26-2, -28, -37 and -38 show a very low conservation ratio and have significant modifications in key residues (Figure 4). Cell. 2006, 12: 631-643. Plant Systems Engineering Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon, 305-506, Korea, Young Nim You, Min Sook Seok, Jeong Mee Park & Hye Sun Cho, Genome Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon, 305-306, Korea, Department of Biological Science, Seonam University, Namwon, 590-711, Korea, Bio-crops Development Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Suwon, Korea, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California, 94720, USA, You can also search for this author in O. sativa has a diphyletic origin, and the two sub species, namely, O. sativa var. 10.1016/S1360-1385(01)02044-1. FKBP and CYP proteins in rice (Oryza sativa cv. Pombe. As with Arabidopsis, none of the cyclophilins contains multiple catalytic domains. 1999, 119: 693-704. Name of the disease : Blast disease of rice. Recently, ROF1 was thought to have played a role in the prolongation of thermotolerance by sustaining the levels of small HSPs essential for survival at high temperatures. Plant Physiol. Oryza sativa is cultivated in all Asian countries whereas Oryza glaberrima is confined to be cultivated only in West Africa (Sano et al. The transcript levels of some of the stress inducible OsIMMs have been investigated in different tissues (Figure 9). Reddy RK, Kurek I, Silverstein AM, Chinkers M, Breiman A, Krishna P: High-molecular-weight FK506-binding proteins are components of heat-shock protein 90 heterocomplexes in wheat germ lysate. Gullerova M, Barta A, Lorkovic ZJ: AtCyp59 is a multi-domain cyclophilin from Arabidopsis thaliana that interacts with SR proteins and the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II. A total of 10 μL of PCR samples was separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and visualized with ethidium bromide staining. Oryza Sativa (Rice) Starch is a starch obtained from rice, Oryza sativa. Yoshida S, Forno DA, Cock JH, Gomez KA: Laboratory manual for physiological studies of rice. Systematic position : The fungus belongs to class: Deuteromycetes. The filter set were used (excitation 450-490 nm, emission 500-550 nm) and Texas Red (excitation 530-585 nm, emission 650 nm longpass) for green fluorescent proteins and autofluorescence of chlorophyll, respectively. The Ring finger, homeodomain protein, SRF-TF, and AS2 genes are less abundant in monocots than other seed plants. Therefore, the common pattern for the Poaceae family has been more highly analyzed than other groups of plants. Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL: The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling. The putative leucine-zipper domain of AtCYP38 (TLP40) is not conserved in OsCYP38, CYN38 and orthologs of other plants (data not shown), and the role of the domain has not been clarified after several studies, indicating that this is not a conclusive point of evolution for the proper function of this protein [54–56]. In particular, OsCYP59b expression increased only 24 h after treatment (Figure 7B). Sharma AD, Singh P: Effect of water stress on expression of a 20kD cyclophilin-like protein in drought susceptible and tolerant cultivars of Sorghum. The donor of the bar gene, Streptomyces hygroscopicus strain HP632, is an aerobic soil bacterium nonpathogenic to humans, animals, or plants. 10.1007/s00497-004-0238-4. 2002, 296: 92-100. Orthologs of these three FKBPs are unlikely to be in Arabidopsis, although they have weak identity with AtFKBP65 in their amino acid sequences (Additional file 1). The expression level using the latter method corresponds roughly to the number of ESTs with all tissues of young plantlets (data not shown). This number compares well with the 29 AtCYPs for Arabidopsis and the 26 genes for Chlamydomonas, indicating that the diversity of CYPs has been maintained or even slightly increased since they were established in the photosynthetic green ancestor. Tonny Maraga Nyongâa, ... Ming Li, in Advances in Rice Research for Abiotic Stress Tolerance, 2019. In addition, a comprehensive analysis of rice IMM FKBPs and CYPs, including putative domain architecture, amino acid alignment, the conservation ratio of key amino residues for binding of immunosuppressive drugs, and phylogenetic relationships between family members, was also conducted. 1994, 26: 1181-1189. In this chapter, we discuss recent genetic work that is related to the origin, taxonomy, and phylogenetics of rice, and we describe the genomic research into the domestication of indica and japonica. 1995, 14: 4939-4948. 1999, 155: 212-219. Oryza sativa delas vanligtvis upp i två underarter, rundkornigt japonica och långkornigt indica.Olika varieteter av japonica odlas oftast på torra fält, i tempererade östra Asien, på höglandet i Sydostasien och på hög höjd i södra Asien, medan varieteter av indica främst odlas i vatten på låglandet, i tropiska Asien. The resulting cDNA was used as templates in 20 μL of PCR reaction using specific primers. CAS 2000, 287: 2204-2215. Oryza sativa L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Oryza (family Poaceae ). Arabidopsis ROF1 (AtFKBP62) expression was induced by heat stress and developmentally regulated. It is also widely accepted that gene duplication is a primary source of new functional genes . 1989, 337: 476-478. The other functional domains such as tetrapeptide repeats (TPR), Arg/Lys amino acids rich domain (gray background box), coiled coil domain (CCD), internal repeats (RPT) and Calmodulin-binding motif (CaM) are indicated separately. Furthermore, most of the chloroplast IMMs in both plants has a putative ortholog relation, which indicates that they may have a conserved function in relation to photosynthesis. Japonica varieties are usually cultivated in dry fields, in temperate East Asia, upland areas of Southeast Asia, and high elevations in South Asia, while indica varieties are mainly lowland rices, grown mostly submerged, throughout tropical Asia. Compared with Arabidopsis, in which the thylakoid lumen FKBPs have two FKBPs (AtFKBP17-2 and 17-3) with high sequence similarity, all thylakoid lumen FKBPs are well conserved in both rice and Arabidopsis, except in the absence of OsFKBP17-3 in rice, considering the domain architecture (Figure 2), the alignment of each amino acid sequence between those with two (data not shown), and the high similarity of conserved key amino acid residues for ISD binding (Table 1). From these results, we suggest that although not all the putative localization of Os IMMs could be checked, in silico prediction programs for subcellular localization may useful for functional study of Os IMMs. As a result, 56 putative IMM genes, consisting of 29 putative FKBPs and 27 putative CYPs, were identified. Oryza sativa temperate japonica subgroup. They also belong to clade III, based on phylogenetic analysis (Figure 6), unlike AtCYP20-2, which is present in clade I and has highly conserved key residues for CsA binding [51–53]. The amino acids necessary for CsA binding as determined for hCYPA were marked by asterisks (*). Kurek I, Aviezer K, Erel N, Herman E, Breiman A: The wheat peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase FKBP77 is heat induced and developmentally regulated. Google Scholar. Oryza denudata Steud. Furthermore, to select water stress-related IMMs from among the putatively classified rice IMM genes, expression patterns of all IMMs under salt and desiccation stress conditions were analyzed. AtCYP20-1 was identified as an unfolded protein response (UPR) gene following endoplasmic reticulum stress . Classification of rice (Oryza satival. This strategy has produced the âNericaâ and other elite lines in breeding programs in West Africa and in the Philippines (Diagne et al., 2010). As with OsCYPs induced under salt stress, desiccation inducing OsCYPs also are composed of CYPs targeted to the various cellular organs. Indica, no proteins with orthology to OsCYP17 were found in any other plants using BlastP analysis (data not shown). Duplication probably occurred immediately after the rice and Arabidopsis lineages separated. Science. iThe confirmation of expression and expression intensity by RT-PCR analysis: Y, yes; N, no; (s), strong; (i), intermediate; (w), weak. Oryza Sativa (Rice) Bran Oil is a light yellow oil expressed from rice bran. Molecular analysis of rice line LLRICE62 showed that genomic transformation resulted only in insertion of the bar gene and the DNA sequences controlling its expression . Fulgosi H, Vener AV, Altschmied L, Herrmann RG, Andersson B: A novel multi-functional chloroplast protein: identification of a 40 kDa immunophilin-like protein located in the thylakoid lumen. PubMed Domain architecture of the O. sativa CYP immunophilins. J Plant Biochem Biotech. Because rice is a semi-aquatic plant commonly grown under flooded conditions, production in Asia has been dramatically increased as a result of the "Green Revolution" following the high-input of irrigation systems since 1961 . Expression of the fusion proteins were monitored at 48 h after Agrobacterium injection by an Axiophot fluorescence microscope (Zeiss, Germany). 10.1139/gen-42-4-646. Different tissues of the rice (6-day-old seedlings, leaves, stems, roots and flowers) were collected and frozen in liquid nitrogen for RNA extraction. Pemberton TJ, Kay JE: Identification and comparative analysis of the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase repetoires of H. sapiens, D. melanogaster, C. elegans, S. cerevisiae &Sz. Rice roots function as the primary site for salinity perception, transmitting salt signals to the shoots for proper salt response and adaptation of the entire plant. However, about half the rice-growing areas in the world do not have sufficient water to maintain flooded conditions, and yield is also reduced to some extent by various abiotic stresses, including drought and salinity. Google Scholar. Fisher G, Wittmann-Liebold B, Lang K, Kiefhaber T, Schmid FX: Cyclophilin and the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase are probably identical proteins. In addition, weed competition and management is one of the major constraints of rice production due to environmental selection of saline-tolerant, troublesome weed species over time. Schreiber SL: Chemistry and biology of the immuophilins and their immuno-suppressive ligands. The alignments of amino acid sequence were performed using ClustalW and displayed with Genedoc v.2.6.002 [66, 67]. g, hThe Mr and isoelectric point of the full-length/mature protein were predicted by Compute pI/Mw tool http://www.expasy.ch/tools/pi_tool.html. As a putative ER-targeting protein, OsFKBP15-1-GFP protein seemed to be localized in the ER, but we were unable to use a specific marker protein in this study. OsCYP28 is only expressed in leaves, whereas AtCYP28, a thylakoid lumen protein, is well expressed in all tissues except roots . They also show that the OsFKBP20-1a and SUMO-conjugating enzyme interacted physically to mediate the stress response of rice plants. It is wet hammer-milled, the cell walls are removed by screening, and the protein is extracted. Godin KS, Varani G: How arginine-rich domains coordinate mRNA maturation events. The other functional domains such as tetrapeptide repeats (TPR), Arg/Lys amino acids rich domain (gray background box), U-box, WD repeats (WD), RRM, Leu-zipper, and zinc-finger are indicated separately. Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair, in Advances in Agronomy, 2019. – red rice P OsFKBP73 has a long Arg/Lys amino acid-rich domain (from aa 402 to 653) at the C-terminus, and OsFKBP57 retains a coiled coil domain in the C-terminal area (Figure 2). The gene-specific primers used for OsFKBPs and OsCYPs are described in Additional file 2 and 3: Supplemental Table S2 and S3. In the meantime, rice lacks the ortholog for another ER CYP, AtCYP21-2, suggesting that AtCYP21-2 was duplicated from one of the other ER targeting isomeric genes: AtCYP19-4, -20-1, or -21-1, in the Arabidopsis lineage alone. It also does not have an ortholog in Chlamydomonas, suggesting it appeared after Chlamydomonas (Additional file 1 and Table 2). Oryza sativa is one species of rice. japonica nipponbare) immunophilins (FKBPs, CYPs) and expression patterns under water stress. 10.1104/pp.103.032524. 10.1016/S0168-9452(01)00437-X. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2. Putative ER-locating OsCYP23 and thylakoid lumen-locating OsCYP28 are not conserved in amino acids for CsA binding (Table 2), and given their upregulated expressions only under salt stress, but not under desiccation stress, we must infer that they are associated with specific substrates for metabolic regulation related to sodium or chloride ions. Taxonomy ID 39946. To search for functional domains, SMART http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de, PROSITE http://us.expasy.org/tools/scanprosite, and a CaM database search http://calcium.uhnres.utoronto.ca were used. However, the number of IMMs in different organisms differs greatly. 278: 31848-31852. IMMs responding to water stress were investigated in different tissues, and the subcellular localization some IMMs were investigated by tagging with GFP protein. Boisvert FM, Chënard CA, Richard S: Protein interfaces in signaling regulated by arginine methylation. 10.1126/science.1068275. A HIGH-POLYMERIC CARBOHYDRATE MATERIAL PRIMARILY COMPOSED OF AMYLOPECTIN AND AMYLOSE. Brit. Magiri EN, Pisanti O, Breiman A: The rice large FKBPs are differentially expressed during development and heat stress. 2009, 50: 1801-1814. Rice belongs to the genus Oryza, of the tribe Oryzeae, of the subfamily Bambusoideae or Ehrhartoideae, of the family Poaceae or Gramineae. They are collectively referred to as immunophilin (IMM), being present in almost all cellular organs. However, all of these members are perfectly conserved in the 7 amino acids for CsA binding, except for Os-CYP19-4 in which 121-tryptophan is changed to arginine (Table 2), suggesting that these are catalytically active isoforms. CYP domains are represented by white box. 10.1104/pp.119.2.693. In Indian sub continent Oryza sativa is the cultivated species. They also contain more divergent functional domains, such as the TPR domain, the WD-40 repeat, the U-box domain and the Zinc finger, each of which is involved in protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions. FKBP domains are represented by white box. Among them, OsCYP18-4, OsCYP19-2, OsCYP19-3, OsCYP19-4, OsCYP20-1, OsCYP21-1 and AtCYP22 share a 5-to-8 amino acid insertion located between the α1 helix and β3 sheet (Figure 4). 2006, 142: 820-830. We have identified 2 rice IMM families, FK506 binding proteins and cyclophilins, using the rice genome sequence database. The bran, which comprises 3%â8% of the kernel and contains pericarp, aleurone, and subaleurone fractions, is a valuable byproduct of rice processing because it contains a high concentration of health beneficial bioactive compounds, including edible lipids. It includes the major food crop rice. These issues will be addressed in this chapter in an attempt to highlight the most important factors and challenges, as well as suggest short- and long-term adaptation strategies in this complex production system. Xin Wei, Xuehui Huang, in Rice (Fourth Edition), 2019. To identify stress-induced Os IMMs under salt and desiccation conditions, RT-PCR was carried out at least 3 times on each IMM. 10.1104/pp.104.041186. Ultimately, the classification of putative FKBPs and CYPs in rice provides information about the evolutionary/functional significance of each FKBP and CYP based on a comparison with the relatively well studied Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas IMMs. 1999, 38: 14955-14965. 10.1038/337476a0. In particular, the conservation between FKBPs, as in the FKBP repertoire, among O. sativa, Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas was lower than in cyclophilins (see below), as reported in a comparative analysis of various organisms containing H. sapiens, D. melaogaster, C. elegans, S. cereviseiae and Sz. 1976, Manila. Mol Genet Genomics. Moreover, the diversity of IMM proteins was somewhat different for the monocot rice than for the dicot Arabidopsis. OsCYP65 contains the U-box and Arg/Lys-rich domain, and was classified as putatively nuclear targeting, unlike cytosolic AtCYP65, for which no Arg/Lys-rich domain was located (Figure 5). OsCYP19-4 is expressed at very low levels only in seedling and roots, whereas AtCYP19-4 was expressed in all tissues. 1998, 434: 425-430. Notably, photosynthetic organisms harbor a remarkably large number of IMMs, with 52 genes (23 FKBPs and 29 CYPs) in Arabidopsis, 49 (23 FKBPs and 26 CYPs) in Chlamydomonas, and 29 FKBPs in rice [4, 6, 8, 9]. BMC Biology. 1997, 4: 1-4. The images of GFP, chlorophyll auto-fluorescence and bright-field images are shown. O. sativa are high yielders while O. glaberrima cultivars are not as high yielders as the former, but, carry many desirable traits as resistance to rice yellow mottle virus, African gall midge, and also to nematodes. Plant Cell Physiol. OsFKBP16-1 is expressed only in leaves and stems, but the AtFKBP16-1, a chloroplast lumen protein, is well expressed in most of tissues except roots. Nurhan Turgut Dunford, in Rice Bran and Rice Bran Oil, 2019. Of the 29 FKBPs containing OsTIG, 15 have been characterized as SD members. Glycemic index correlates negatively with amylose content. 10.1016/S0014-5793(03)00366-1. A large number of IMMs in eukaryotes and, in particular, in plants remains evolutionarily and functionally obscure. Peltier JB, Emanuelsson O, Kalume DE, Ytterberg J, Frisco G, Rudella A, Liberles DA, Söderberg L, Roepstorff P, von Heijne G, van Wijk KJ: Central functions of the lumenal and peripheral thylakoid proteome of Arabidopsis determined by experimentation and genome-wide predition. Rice domestication has greatly influenced the history and civilization of humans. Oryza sativa aromatic subgroup. Among the 27 CYPs, 18 are SD members and 9 have been characterized as MD proteins. Oryza is a genus of plants in the grass family. naindayegan daytoy iti kalaka a henetiko a mabaliwan, ken maysa a modelo nga organismo para iti sereal a biolohia Trends Plant Sci. RNA Biol. But some of the stress-inducible OsIMMs (OsFKBP15-1, -16-1, -62a, and OsCYP19-4, -28, -57, -59b) are not consistent with the Arabidopsis orthologs results: OsFKBP15-1 is expressed only weakly in leaf, compared to the AtFKBP15-1 which is expressed strongly in all tissues. indica and O. sativa var japonica ecotype in temperate regions are clearly separated having diverged around 7 million years ago with different ancestral gene pools (Brar and Singh, 2011). FEBS Lett. The OsIMMs FKBP15-1, FKBP20-1a and FKBP20-1b, CYP19-2, and CYP20-2 cDNA fragments corresponding to the 154, 186, 185, 171, 247, and amino acids were cloned into the pCAMBIA1302 plasmids using BglII and SpeI sites to generate the OsIMMs-GFP fusion proteins respectively. Other MD FKBPs with a TPR domain are OsFKBP62a, -62b, and -62c. For domestic rice, the tertiary wild relatives are a further source of genetic diversity. Secondary structure features (a-helix and b-sheets) derived from the hFKBP12 were displayed. 1997, 11: 331-340. EMBNET NEWS. More to the point, Escherichia coli possesses 6 IMMs, including 3 FKBPs and 2 cyclophilins. Expression levels of some immunophilins (especially, showing changes in mRNA expression levels under water stress) in different tissues. Systematik. Despite the primacy of rice, when, where, and how rice was domesticated was debated for decades. Japonica). FASEB J. Putative cytosolic OsCYP18-4, -19-2, and -19-3; secretional OsCYP19-4 and OsCYP21-1; mitochondria-targeting OsCYP20-1 and OsCYP22; and chloroplast-targeting OsCYP20-2 and OsCYP20-3 are closely related, with similar amino acid sequences, and mostly belong to 2 branches of clade I (Figure 6). Some of the Os IMM genes were upregulated by both salt and desiccation stress, but others showed gene expression against only one stress. Yang X, Tuskan GA, Cheng MZ: Divergence of the Dof gene families in poplar, Arabidopsis, and rice suggests multiple modes of gene evolution after duplication. Interestingly, only OsCYP59a includes the long insertion between the α1/β3 and β4/β5 domains, and they may have distinct functions. Expression in OsFKBP19, -20-1a, and -20-1b was strongly induced by desiccation stress, with OsFKBP16-3, -42a, -42b, -58, and -62a also showing increased expression levels. Trends in Plant Sci. Like other photosynthetic organisms encoding the putative 52 genes of Arabidopsis, 49 genes of Chlamydomonas, putative 27 genes for FKBPs and 36 genes for CYPs of Sorghum bicolor, and putative 26 genes for FKBPs and 25 genes for CYPs of Vitis vinifera (our unpublished data), rice also has one of the largest IMM families in organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced [4, 6]. The Opaline limited edition lipglosses by Oryza is a bright polychromatic range of long-lasting metallic glosses that bring a bright iridescent shimmer to your lips! 10.1073/pnas.0405240101. However, OsFKBP20-1a GFP protein showed a typical nuclear targeting pattern, but the OsFKBP20-1b GFP proteins were strongly accumulated in a specific region within the nucleus and also in cytosol foci. The numbers above the boxes denote the amino acid positions of the function domains. Motohashi K, Koyama F, Nakanishi Y, Ueoka-Nakanishi H, Hisabori T: Chloroplast cyclophilin is a target protein of thioredoxin. PubMed Central The GRF family of TFs has not only been found in all land plant genomes, including representatives of angiosperms and gymnosperms, but also in the moss Physcomitrella patens and the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. The endosperm contains mainly starch granules and protein bodies, with little matrix protein in evidence. Yet, in the respective domestications, the dramatic transformation from a weedy type to reliable cultivars probably was associated with domestication gene bottlenecks. Ferbitz L, Maier T, Patzelt H, Bukau B, Deuerling E, Ban N: Trigger factor in complex with the ribosome forms a molecular cradle for nascent proteins. The wide range in amylose content reflects different preferences for cooked rice texture in Asia and elsewhere. In addition, the large number of IMM genes in the green lineage can be classified according to an ortholog relation. However, some rice IMM genes are clearly different from those of Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas, and they may therefore have evolved and developed a distinct role along a different evolutionary lineage. 2000, 12: 343-356. Most strikingly, of all genes encoding FKBPs and CYPs, a total of 12 can be deleted without seriously affecting the viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae . For some genes where > 2 genes show an orthologous sequence with the same protein as Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas, lowercase extension letters were added to the name according to the order of similarity. (A) QLQ and WRC domain organization in representative GRFs from A. thaliana (AtGRF), O. sativa (OsGRF), and Zea mays (ZmGRF). Vener AV, Rokka A, Fulgosi H, Andersson B, Herrmann RG: A cyclophilin-regulated PP2A-like protein phosphates in thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts. The numbers above the boxes denote the amino acid positions of the function domains. PubMed Oryza meridionalis is found in the Australian tropics. 2007, 4: 69-75. This plant hormone promotes the growth of rice stems after flooding by activating cell proliferation in the intercalary meristem (Kende et al., 1998), a region at the base of internodes where new cells are produced. The beginning and ending amino acids numbers of each protein are shown at each end of the diagram. 10.1021/bi700426q. Also by investigating the expression of all OsFKBPs and OsCYPs under salt and desiccation stress conditions, we found that a significant number of genes were up-regulated in response to water stress. Classification of the putative FKBPs and CYPs in rice provides the information about their evolutional/functional significance when comparisons are drawn with the relatively well studied genera, Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas. Expression level of representative immunophilins under salt stress. (PDF 97 KB). IT IS USUALLY DERIVED FROM CEREAL GRAINS SUCH AS CORN, WHEAT AND SORGHUM, AND FROM ROOTS AND TUBERS SUCH AS POTATOES AND TAPIOCA. HC and HP conceived the intellectual design of the project and wrote the manuscript. Sex Plant Reprod. 333 1753 . Stoller G, Rücknagel KP, Nierhaus KH, Schmid FX, Fischer G, Rahfeld JU: A ribosome-associated peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase identified as the trigger factor. 10.1093/protein/9.2.173. According to the prediction database, OsFKBP15-1 is localized to ER; OsFKBP20-1a and -b are localized to nucleus (Figure 2);OsCYP19-2 is cytosolic; and OsCYP20-2 is located in the chloroplast lumen (Figure 5). Nomenclature and Classification > Taxon Record Name > Scientific Name. Under salt stress, the dynamic regulation of proteins in different functional groups plays a major role in different signaling pathways. An RNA recognition motif (RRM) that may interact with RNA was also found. It is suggested that these two proteins may have a distinct and unchanged function for a long period of time, though with a low level of expression (Additional file 1). & Suzuki Oryza glutinosa Lour. Plant J. 10.1007/s11103-009-9547-1. MD AtFKBP53 and a SD AtFKBP15-3 showed high sequence similarity, but also that rice lacks an ortholog of AtFKBP15-3, suggesting that these proteins (OsFKBP44 and AtFKBP15-3) also originated from Chlamydomonas FKB53, but that duplication of two proteins occurred after the lineage divergence of the two plants from a common ancestor. 10.1074/jbc.M909368199. The transmembrane domains (TM) that are not part of the signal peptide are labeled. Additional file 2: Primer sequences of OsFKBP genes for quantitative RT-PCR. Sirpiö S, Khrouchtchova A, Allahverdiyeva Y, Hansson M, Fristedt R, Vener AV, Scheller HV, Jensen PE, Haldrup A, Aro EM: AtCYP38 ensures early biogenesis, correct assembly and sustenance of photosystem II. The human genome contains 18 genes for FKBPs and 24 genes for CYPs. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains 4 FKBPs and 8 CYPs. 10.1006/geno.2000.6295. Members of the genus grow as tall, wetland grasses, growing to 1–2 m tall; the genus includes both annual and perennial species. The analysis indicated many of the genes (OsFKBP 20-1a, -20-1b, -58, -42a, and OsCYP18-1, -21-4, -19-3, -17 and -20-1) are expressed in all tissues, including 6-day seedlings, leaves, stems, roots and flowers, in agreement with previous Arabidopsis orthologs results . The ortholog of OsCYP95 is absent in Chlamydomonas, and belongs to the same branch as OsCYP63 within clade II (Figure 6), indicating that OsCYP95 may be a duplicate of OsCYP63 from before the divergence of rice and Arabidopsis, but after Chlamydomonas. Vespa L, Vachon G, Berger F, Perazza D, Faure JD, Herzog M: The immnuophilin-interacting protein AtFIP37 from Arabidopsis is essential for plant development and is involved in trichome endoreduplication. Superfamily of peptidyl prolyl isomerases in Arabidopsis. OsFKBP58 and -53 were previously named OsFKBP53a and -53b, respectively . 2004, 101: 13945-13950. 10.1093/pcp/pcp122. Unlike AtCYP20-1, OsCYP20-1 retains additional 21-mer (maybe a signal for mitochondrial targeting) at the N-terminus of the protein (Figure 4), and this additional peptide proved to be common in several other plants (data not shown). 10.1074/jbc.M601815200. In the sativa complex, the seven primary gene pool relatives, all diploids with the A genome as domestic rice, have diverse ecogeographic distribution, as follows: Oryza nivara, an annual, ranges from the Deccan Plateau in India to the Plateau regions of Myanmar, China and South-East Asia, sometimes cohabiting with Oryza rufipogon, a close relative. 2007, 46: 9432-9442. Also, the two proteins exhibit phylogenetic divergence due to a tetra- (18-2) or penta- (18-1) peptide deletion in the β2 domain (Figure 4 and Figure 6). All authors read and approved the final manuscript. However, OsFKBP62a, -62b, and -62c retain 77, 75 and 73% similarity with AtFKBP62 in amino acid sequence, respectively, and 41, 41 and 42% similarity with FKB62, respectively (Figure 2, Additional file 1), and all belong to one stem branch of clade II in the phylogenetic tree (Figure 3). The bZIP, WRKY, NAC, AP2/EREBP, and ABI3/VP1 TF genes are slightly more divergent in monocots than other seed plants. 2000, 68: 167-178. Furthermore, the large number of IMMs located in the thylakoid lumen in Arabidopsis is upregulated only by light conditions; analysis of the microarray data showed that the expression of several IMM genes was regulated by certain environmental conditions . 1998, 17: 1577-1587. However, the phenotype and protein composition of the thylakoid lumen in AtCYP20-2 mutants seems indistinguishable from that of the wild type plants, and it is concluded therefore that AtCYP20-2 is unrelated to its PPIase capacity [52, 53]. It is also tolerant to drought, acidity and iron toxicity and strongly compete with weeds, which suggest opportunities for crossing of the two species for complimentary effects on desirable traits (Brar and Singh, 2011). 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.02821.x. Unlike other MD FKBPs, which are composed of triple FKBP domains, the second FKBP domain of OsFKBP72 is the most highly conserved domain and shows remarkable differences in terms of key residues of hFKBP12 for ISD binding/PPIase activity. Romano P, He Z, Luan S: Introducing immunophilins. Its global production volume is the second highest of any crop. In the OsCYPs, OsCYP19-3, -20-2, -21-4, -23, and -28, gene expression was strongly induced 3 h after salt treatment and continued until 72 h. OsCYP17 -19-4, -20-1, -57, and 59b expression was also induced under salt stress. Amino acids of full length protein for single CYP domain OsCYPs, and only the most conserved amino acids area for multiple CYP domain OsCYPs, were aligned. The strongest salt induction pattern can be seen on OsFKBP20-1b, which is rarely expressed in the absence of stress (Figure 7A). (PDF 58 KB). Chou IT, Gasser CS: Characterization of the cyclophilin gene family of Arabidopsis thaliana and phylogenetic analysis of known cyclophilin proteins. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-10-253, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-10-253. This information added broader evidence in favor of the theory that the diversity of IMMs was already established in their last common ancestor, probably close to the root of the "green" lineage of plants, but they may have continued to change and become more diverse since the completion of the "green" lineage. 333. The diversity may be inherited from cyanobacteria, which contains two CYPs similar to CYN37 and -38 . Among OsCYPs that have highly conserved CsA binding amino acids, OsCYP20-2 (chloroplast thylakoid lumen) and OsCYP20-3 (chloroplast stroma) show ortholog relationships with AtCYP20-2 and AtCYP20-3 and CYN20-3, respectively. There are polyphyletic origins among the cultivated rice species/sub species, and these also have the potential to add genes for improvement with the sharing of gene pools. Romano PG, Horton P, Gray JE: The Arabidopsis cyclophilin gene family. Toshifumi Nagata, ... Shoshi Kikuchi, in Plant Transcription Factors, 2016. Actually, the activity of a stromal AtCYP20-3 (ROC4) and the thylakoidal AtFKBP13, are regulated by redox relay of the thiol group [58, 59]. By using this website, you agree to our OsFKBP62a is expressed in leaves, stems and flowers, but not in seedlings and is extremely low in roots, whereas AtFKBP62 is expressed in all tissues. OsFKBP44 has a long N-terminal area containing two internal repeat domains and a FKBP domain, showing some degree of similarity to AtFKBP15-3 (data not shown). Unrooted phylogenetic trees of O. sativa FKBP proteins. The C-terminus of PAS1 is required for binding with the NAC-like transcription factor and nuclear translocation . Putative IMMs of Oryza sativa cv. All in all, the diversity of chloroplast lumen FKBPs has been established in Chlamydomonas based on the number of IMMs. The ER location of AtCYP19-4 (CYP5) has been confirmed by N-terminal green fluorescent protein fusion, and may involve the modulation of a guanine nucleotide exchange factor essential for vesicle trafficking [48, 49]. Article The signal sequences of all chloroplast FKBPs have double arginine residues and follow the hydrophobic region needed for chloroplast lumen translocation via the Tat (twin arginine translocase) pathway . Regarding desiccation stress, 8 OsFKBPs and 5 OsCYPs were upregulated in our water stress conditions (see the methods). Godoy AV, Lazzaro AS, Casalongue CA, San Segundo B: Expression of a Solanum tuberosum cyclophilin gene is regulated by fungal infection and abiotic stress conditions. OsCYP57 is only expressed in leaves and flowers at low levels, compared to the high expression of AtCYP57 in all tissues. Oryza sativa Japonica Group (Japanese rice) Click on organism name to get more information. To compare the conservation patterns of the amino acid residues for the binding of immunosuppressive drug (ISD) FK506/PPIase activity and secondary structural details, the amino acids of 29 OsFKBPs were co-aligned with human FKBP12 (hFKBP12) as an external reference. These results suggest that OsCYP17 occurred most recently in the evolution of O. sativa. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop that feeds more than one half of the worldâs population. Red indicates the C-terminal regions from AtGRF1, AtGRF2, AtGRF5, and AtGRF7, which display transcriptional transactivation activity in yeast (Kim et al., 2003; Kim et al., 2012). javanica ), and 'aromatic'. Two μg of RNA were transcribed reversely in a 20 μl reaction volume using oligo dT 14 to 18 primer (Invitrogen Life Technologies) and reverse transcriptase (SuperScript III, Invitrogen Life Technologies). Oryza sativa is a major and important crop of Asia, especially southern, eastern, and South-East Asia, and also important in Southern Europe, like France, and the Americas, while Oryza glaberrima is distributed as a semi-upland (non irrigated largely, but, irrigated partially, as well) land type found in high rainfall areas. Michnick SW, Rosen MK, Wandless TJ, Karplus M, Schreiber SL: Solution structure of FKBP, a rotamase enzyme and receptor for FK506 and rapamycin. 10.1104/pp.118.4.1395. Two OsFKBPs (OsFKBP15-1 and OsFKBP15-2) contain putative ER targeting sequences at the N-terminus and have possible C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signals (DSEL and NSEL for OsFKBP15-1 and OsFKBP15-2, respectively) (Figure 1 and 2), although it will need to be confirmed whether they function as real anchors in the ER membrane. Like other green photosynthetic organisms such as Arabidopsis (23 FKBPs and 29 CYPs) and Chlamydomonas (23 FKBs and 26 CYNs), rice has the highest number of IMM genes among organisms reported so far, suggesting that the numbers relate closely to photosynthesis. The sequence alignment of Figure 1 (OsFKBPs) was used and the phylogenetic analysis was based on the sequence alignments by ClustalX http://align.genome.jp. Scheufler C, Brinker A, Bourenkov G, Pegoraro S, Moroder L, Bartunik H, Hartl FU, Moarefi I: Structure of TPR domain-peptide complexes: critical elements in the assembly of the Hsp70-Hsp90 multichaperone machine. 10.1016/S1046-2023(03)00037-9. He Z, Li L, Luan S: Immunophilins and parvulins. Another cytosolic OsCYP19-3 that shows 79% identity with AtCYP19-3 also is very similar to OsCYP19-2 in amino acid sequence (Additional file 1), except for some divergence in the α3 domain (Figure 4). PubMed The conservation patterns of the amino acid residues for the binding of ISD showed great differences between OsFKBPs (Figure 1, Table 1). Vallon O: Chlamydomonas immunophilins and parvulins: survey and critical assessment of gene models. Edvardsson A, Eshaghi S, Vener AV, Andersson B: The major peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity in thylakoid lumen of plant chloroplast belongs to a novel cyclophilin TLP20. Also, resistance to the deadly rice disease, bacterial blight, and to various other viruses, tolerance to soil toxicity, early maturing and cytoplasmic male sterility. Salinity has been a key abiotic plant stress damaging crop production worldwide. 10.1016/S0168-9452(99)00211-3. Genus Oryza L. – rice P : Contains 7 Species and 3 accepted taxa overall : Down one level : Species Oryza barthii A. Chev. Japonica rice can be classified into three subgroups, 'temperate japonica', 'tropical japonica' (also known as 'javanica', Oryza sativa subsp. A35780) was used for determined for hFKBP12 were marked by asterisks (*). The novelty of these genes and the suggestion that these three genes originated from the regional duplications of rice chromosome 1 has recently been reported . Oryza sativa Japonica (rice) is the staple food for 2.5 billion people. Romano PG, Edvardsson A, Ruban AV, Andersson B, Vener AV, Gray JE, Horton P: Arabidopsis AtCYP20-2 is a light-regulated cyclophilin-type peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase associated with the photosynthetic membranes. The 2 cultivated species are Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima. 1999, 262: 830-838. Japonica) were identified and classified, and given the appropriate name for each IMM, considering the ortholog-relation with Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas or molecular weight of the proteins. Finally, OsCYP59b is a rare case of expression pattern in which transcripts can be detected only in the stem at very low levels, but AtCYP59 is at high levels in all tissues. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by ClustalW using the above aligned amino acid sequence. 1896; Gamble, Fl. The glycine repeat domain at N-terminus is associated with consensus targeting for the endoplasmic reticulum, and rFKBP75 was predicted to be an ER membrane protein . In addition, these two proteins belong to clade II, which is comprised of the two SD CYPs (OsCYP18-1 and -18-2), as well as 3 MD CYPs (OsCYP57, -65 and -71), and OsCYP18-1 and OsCYP65 share the same branch (Figure 6). However, OsCYP22, the ortholog of AtCYP22 and CYN22 that are putatively cytosolic, scored high for targeting to chloroplast stroma based on both PSORT II and Target P analysis. PubMed Central 6 of the 9 MD CYPs have Arg/Lys amino acid-rich domains that may function as a motif for non-specific RNA-binding or mediate protein-protein interactions, and are also frequent targets of molecular interactions (Figure 5) [32–34]. These results suggest that even if they are orthologs, each orthologous IMM in other organisms are under a different spatial/temporal-regulation as a result of environmental or physiological adaptation. Japonica) were identified and classified, and given the appropriate name for each IMM, considering the ortholog-relation with Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas or molecular weight of the proteins. Plant Mol Biol. Crude Rice Bran Oil is non-edible due to the large amounts of … The soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans genome contains 8 genes for FKBPs and 24 genes for CYPs. Meiri D, Breiman A: Arabidopsis ROF1(FKBP62) modulates thermo tolerance by interacting with HSP90.1 and affecting the accumulation of HsfA2-regulated sHSPs. The rice actin level was used for control. In reality, the amino acids at the C-terminus in which the membrane-anchoring domain is positioned showed significant changes between AtFKBP42 and OsFKBP42a/b (data not shown). Another two CYPs, the putative mitochondrial OsCYP21-4 and nuclear OsCYP57, were positively regulated in response to both salt and desiccation stress; none of the functions of the two proteins and their other plant orthologs are known. Human FKBP12 (hFKBP12, GeneBank accession no. 2006, 170: 695-704. Two OsFKBPs (20-1a and 20-1b) are characterized as putative nuclear targeting paralogous proteins by the presence of nuclear localization signals (NLS) in the C-terminal region (Figure 2). 10.1074/jbc.M304258200. Google Scholar. Cite this article. A, OsFKBPs RT-PCR analysis; B, OsCYPs RT-PCR analysis. Classification kingdom Plantae phylum Tracheophyta class Liliopsida order ... Oryza sativa Name Homonyms Oryza sativa subsp. Indica using the GRAMENE and NCBI database, we conclude that the 670 amino acid from the NCBI database is probably correct. 2003, 72: 291-336. hFKBP12 identifies the 14 amino acid residues for the FK506 binding and PPIase activity [27–29]. Oryza sativa L., Sp. In this study, a sample of 234 accessions of rice was genotyped at … In Asia, Oryza sativa (Rice) is regarded to be the first cultivated crop. OsCYP19-4 was abundant only in pistils at anthesis and 1 h after anthesis and was undetectable in leaves, roots, flowers, and embryos. 2004, 134: 1268-1282. Thiol modulation of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. FEBS Lett. 2002, 96: 203-212. Information provided in this chapter may also aid in evaluating the potential rice yield loss from weeds and in developing efficacious weed control methods under saline environments. These wild relatives have undesirable traits, such as, shattering, poor grain type, poor plant type, low yield, and various incompatibility barriers, yet, useful traits have been transferred to domestic rice. AtCYP22 also contains an N-terminal extension, but it did not score highly for targeting to any subcellular compartment, whereas the signal peptide of AtCYP22 shows the changes in some amino acids containing the insertion of hydrophobic 5 amino acids, which may affect its signaling properties (data not shown). cPredicted localization and prediction obtained using TargetP http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/TargetP/, ChloroP http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/ChloroP/ and PredictNLS http://www.predictprotein.org: TL, thylakoid lumen; S, stroma; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; Vac, vacuole. Plant Mol Biol. Plant Physiol. EMBO J. It is commonly consumed as milled or white rice, which is produced by removing the hull and bran layers of the rough rice kernel during the dehulling and milling processes, respectively. The rice grain consists of a hull and an edible berry (caryopsis). Rice starch is used in Europe in baby foods, and in the laundry and paper industries. Interestingly, Arabidopsis has only single AtFKBP20-1 and AtFKBP15-3, and another nuclear targeting SD FKBP has its signal at the N-terminal region, whereas rice lacks an ortholog for AtFKBP15-3 . RNA was purified further using Qiagen RNeasy columns (Qiagen Inc., CA, USA) and on-column DNase treatment. Smyczynski C, Roudier F, Gissot L, Vaillant E, Grandjean O, Morin H, Masson T, Bellec Y, Geelen D, Faure JD: The C terminus of the immunophilin PASTICCINO1 is required for plant development and for interaction with a NAC-like transcription factor. A, OsFKBPs RT-PCR analysis; B, OsCYPs RT-PCR analysis. Saito T, Niwa Y, Ashida H, Tanaka K, Kawamukai M, Matsuda H, Nakagawa T: Expression of a gene for cyclophilin which contains an amino-terminal endoplasmic reticulum-targeting signal. Nigam N, Singh A, Sahi C, Chandramouli A, Grover A: SUMO-conjugating enzyme (Sce) and FK506-binding protein (FKBP) encoding rice (Oryza sativa L.) genes: genome-wide analysis, expression studies and evidence for their involvement in abiotic stress response. India is rich in rice diversity by virtue of being a part of primary centre o f origin on one hand Expression in OsFKBP20-1a, -58, and -42b was induced at 1 h after desiccation stress, but expression in OsFKBP16-3, -19, -20-1b, -42a, and OsFKBP62a was induced 24 h after desiccation (Figure 8A). 2005, 3: 20-10.1186/1741-7007-3-20. Pathogen : Disease incited by a fungus, Pyricularia oryzae. Plant Cell Physiol. The tissues were used 6 days growing seedling (Se), leaves (L), stems (St), roots (R) and flowers (F). For the desiccation stress treatment, two-week-old rice seedlings were transferred to dry pots and harvested at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after the treatment time points. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was carried out with gene specific primers using cDNAs from RNA samples. Oryza formosana Masam. Localization of fluorescent signals was examined at 48 h after Agrobacterium infiltration under fluorescence microscopy. Oryza elongata Steud. 10.1002/cfg.482. Classification kingdom Plantae phylum Tracheophyta class ... Oryza sativa Name Synonyms Oryza aristata Blanco Oryza communissima Lour. Privacy OsFKBP72 also shows considerable similarity with AtFKBP72 in the C-terminal area. 10.1104/pp.103.900108. Rice is the world's largest crop and serves as a staple food for a large part of the world's human population. The expression of most of rice's IMMs was identified by the presence of ESTs in the NCBI O. sativa EST database. et al. OsFKBP72 - with a triple FKBP domain, TPR domain, and NLS at the N-terminal area - shows 67% similarity and absolute similarity in terms of amino acid residues for PPIase with AtFKBP72 (Figure 2, Table 1). These include OsFKBP12, -13, -15-1, -15-2, -16-1, -16-2, -16-3, -16-4, -17-1, -17-2, -18, -19, -20-2, -53, and -72 for FKBPs, and OsCYP18-1, -18-2, -18-4, -19-2, -19-3, -19-4, -20-1, -20-2, -20-3, -21-1, -21-4, -22, -23, -26-2, -28, -37, -38, -57, -63, -65, -71, and -95 for CYPs.
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