ragweed nutritional value

Weeds also compete with cultivated crops and forages for moisture, light, and nutrients, but many weeds are nutrient-rich and digestible.9 The objective of this review paper is to recognize the nutritional values of weeds commonly found in pastures.2. Ragweed earns its name because the leaf appears so raggedy-looking. Really interesting article! For example, calcium (Ca) in ragweed and Jerusalem artichoke is ~50% higher than that in alfalfa–rich hay (Table 1). I got sick, Really Sick !! Ahhh Giant ragweed, mis-guided teenagers always think this yummy guy is either hemp or a cannabis specimen. Any idea how closely related ragweed is to quinoa? We live in Fort Lauderdale. Temme et al.17 found that common lambsquarters, Pennsylvania smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum), redroot pigweed, and common ragweed had NDF concentrations similar to or slightly lower than alfalfa, but shepherds purse and yellow foxtail were greater (table 6). What about humans eating the hard seeds or foliage? If that were part of the ethnobotanical and reported use I would have mentioned it. I am eager to give it a try as I love vegies. It’s average invitro digestible dry matter is 73%, it’s acid detergent fiber is 25%, and it’s crude protein is 25%. I have been following Dean Greens site for a few years now. Managed grazing by the cattle and goats increased herbaceous vegetative cover of the pastures (from 65 percent to 86 percent) after four grazing seasons. I never knew why, but if I got one for him he couldn’t leave it alone until it was all gone. study3 (table 4) meet the CP needs for all goats and sheep except crabgrass, which would not fulfill the CP requirements for mature lactating ewes when suckling twins (15 percent CP).10. Why it is missing from Arizona now is anyone’s guess. I decided to try something that is a principal of Homeopathy (Likes cure Likes) and not real sure what I might be getting myself into Ate the ragweed flowers ……and waited…. 3rd one is toward end of article. A quick search confirms the two to be close botanical relatives. It’s not easy in modern times to be aware of past practices. If you ever head to Central Fl. They are quite similar in taste and preparation. It turns a reddish purple color, I suspect it may contain anthocyanins. Now I know what to search for. Four components from six peaks of the fatty acid constituents were identified.The main constituents are linoleic acid and oleic acid,and the relative contents are 81.60% and 14.73%,respectively. Te genus yields volatile oils. Bosworth, S. C., C. S. Hoveland, and G. A. Buchanan. Regarding Kara (post #8) and her dogs: Value Class Food Cover; High: Average 25-50% of diet: Regular source of cover: Low: 5-10% of diet: Infrequently used as cover: Minor: 2-5% of diet: Sparsely used as cover: Moderate: Average 10-25% of diet: Occasional source of cover Have you tried taking daily doses of local, raw honey? Most Canada thistle shoots were eliminated with two intense defoliations over two to three years with the high-intensity/low-frequency rotational grazing, due to cattle defoliation and trampling. Herbalists value ragweed root tea as a remedy for nausea, fevers, and menstrual disorders; Native Americans used the root tea as a laxative. Generally that’s not practical without modern machinery. Allergy to ragweed and related plants: Tagetes may cause an allergic reaction in people who are sensitive to the Asteraceae/Compositae family. With the migration of man so went the Ragweed and the number of plants and the amount of pollen carried by the wind. Giant Ragweed is much larger in stature to Common Ragweed, often gro… It’s on the menu for the Eastern Cottontail, Meadow Vole, grasshoppers which eat the leaves, Dark-eyed Junco, Brown-headed Cowbird, Northern Bobwhite, Purple Finch, Mourning Dove, American Goldfinch, and the Red-bellied Woodpecker. Giant ragweed is a member of the Asteraceae, or sunflower, fam-ily of plants. One time I picked a lot of them, put them in pint jars and poured a hot pickling solution on them. Generally said Ragweed is not an “antique vegetable” as such things are sometime called. Herb of second growth crushed leaves mixed with chicken fat and/or hot water, cool mixture rubbed on the body to reduce fever. All rights reserved. It has become invasive in much of the world including Central and South America, Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa. Weed nursery was seeded naturally in late summer and autumn of 1970. Journal of Northeast Forestry University 2008-01GC-MS Analysis of Fatty Acid Constituents in Ambrosia trifida Seed Oil, Zhang Lin,Yang Lei,Niu Huiying,Li Xiaowei,Zu Yuangang(Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of Ministry of Education,Northeast Forestry University,Harbin 150040,P.R China). That’s an energy powerhouse despite the size. But it is something that we should all learn to do for ourselves, particularly where our health is concerned. I’m in Collier county and want to get some live ragweed to make a tincture for mercury positioning, as recommended by Edgar Cayce in reading 1880-1 (along with using castor oil packs). Season-long grazing sustained the amount of Canada thistle in the pastures and even increased the thistle in some cases, which resulted in a lower forage yield. Stick to food amounts. Weber says a key sign is the timing and severity of symptoms compared with local pollen counts. Ragweed has multiple antigens but the strongest is Antigen E. There are also several plants that in the greater Ragweed family that can cause allergic reactions including sage brush, marsh elders, poverty weed, cocklebur, desert broom, groundsel bush, feverfew and dog fennel. Use of goats as biological agents for the renovation of pastures in the Appalachian region of the United States. Forage quality of selected cool-season weed species. Bosworth, S. C., C. S. Hoveland, G. A. Buchanan, and W. B. Anthony. Ragweed, the most hay-fever causing plant in the world. But might I offer a variant of that? Forage nutritive value and palatability of 12 common annual weeds. The plant is also very high in manganese, calcium, and is high in Magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc and copper. However, I will now endeavor to collect seeds, will see if they can be processed in any way to remove the outer bur husk… Definitely going to eat the leaves and roots… Brought them to a pot luck dinner and called it pickled scrog weed. Ambrosia cumanensis; herb teas for yellow fever, constipation, menorrhagia. The roots are carrot-like in appearance, and I ate small ones from our backyard raw when I was a kid. The grass species tall fescue (F. arundinacea) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) in the pastures were increased from 16 percent to 63 percent in pastures grazed by goats, and from 13 percent to 54 percent in cattle and goat pastures.11 Multiflora rose (R. multiflora Thunb.) It’s difficult for a seed to end up in an ancient bathroom unless it was eaten. They will keep for years this way. They tear the leaves off the plant and munch on them. De Bruijn and Bork5 researched Canada thistle management in temperate pastures using three different cattle-grazing systems, including season-long, low-intensity/high-frequency rotational grazing, and high-intensity/low-frequency rotational grazing. I’m pretty sure we have Ambrosia tenuifolia in our yard here in Tennessee. peace. If you have a ragweed pollen allergy, it helps to know what you are up against. I never bothered looking up ragweed because i thought no way is it edible. allergies to members of the Aster/Composite family are not uncommon. how many seeds would yield enough oil for say a cup to pint ect? Forage nutritive value and palatability of perennial weeds. Ambrosia psilostachya, a bitter decoction taken to relieve fever. napus) is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed, which naturally contains appreciable amounts of erucic acid. Do you know of any toxicity, or is there just not much that we do know about it…other than the grain aspect? Facts. I like them fried in my eggs or raw in my salads. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) had greater IVDMD than alfalfa, while common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), yellow foxtail (Setaria glauca), and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) had similar IVDMD to alfalfa12 (table 2). Two or three dropperfuls of the tincture will clear the sinuses within a couple of minutes for most people. An acceptable Ca:P ratio is between 1:1 and 7:1, as long as there is enough phosphorus (P) to meet the animal’s nutritional requirements.14,15 High Ca:P ratios have been blamed for animal disorders such as milk fever, impaired feed conversion, and poor breeding performance.13 Cutleaf evening primrose (O. laciniata) had Ca:P ratios greater than 7:1 at all maturity stages, while Carolina geranium and ladino clover (Trifolium repens L.) had Ca:P ratios exceeding 7:1 only at the later growth stages, according to data from Bosworth et al.2 Among the summer annual herbaceous weeds, sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia), coffee senna, hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), Florida beggarweed (Desmodium tortuosum), prickly sida, and bur gherkin had Ca:P ratios greater than 7:1.3 Canada thistle was the only weed in the Marten et al. Weeds can often make up a large percentage of a hay crop, especially in early spring when winter annual weeds are thriving.2 At the first hay cutting, many winter annual weeds such as curly dock, Virginia pepperweed (Lepidium virginicum), and cutleaf evening primrose may be mature, which may cause hay quality to decline.2 Bosworth et al.3 indicated that if some of the higher quality but less palatable summer annual weeds – sicklepod, coffee senna, hemp sesbania, prickly sida, and jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) – were included in hay, they could still provide a nutritious food source. Hope this helps. And now on the horizon looms the worst dream of the grain farmer: Giant ragweed is becoming immune to herbicides, particularly glyphosate, the active ingredient of RoundUp. No, not that I know of. 1987. 79:980-986. Their leaves are made up of multiple leaflets and the flowers are often clustered at the top of the plant. But I have no idea about consumption long term. They also make a nice tea, which is how i found out that the leaves were delicious boiled. ahh ragweed, %$&^&*%^ and $%^&^ lol , I used to always love walking in the way back woods as a kid, this plant always amazed me because it is one of the few plants with flowers on them in sept + and they are bright yellow. Re: Ambrosia. Adapted from Marten, G. C., C. C. Sheaffer, and D. L. Wyse. It was also a “granny” medicine to “clean everything out” after childbirth. I work with ladders painting in the summer, and when my allergies get bad, sometimes it affects my ears and my balance, and I get extremely dizzy / woozy here and there when the inner ear canals get blocked from regular ragweed pollen allergies. I eat the latter regularly. Crop Science 15:821-827. I had heard it would cause fever and boil your brain. I eat rag weed in place of cultivated greens because it is so plentiful and I don’t have to plant it (no planting or care required). You should make the tea from the leaves…not the blossoms. Additionally, it contains 1.3 mg of Omega-3 fatty acids, but only a tenth of a gram of fat. I have also used it for bow drill, the spindle & hearth, with success. Article could summarize how to use ragweed – in this era of Montanto messing with our corn, we may need it in future? However, the fact that Indigenous Americans were specialists at navigating starvation episodes, combined with the observation that giant ragweed seeds are comprised of about 19 percent edible oil, make it fairly certain that these seeds would not be overlooked as a food resource.” No details given. My symptoms all but cleared up within about 20 minutes ! For the past couple of years, ragweed growth has exploded in pastures. Quinoa. strong sunflower plant taste. Copyright 2007-2018 – This web page is the property of Green Deane, LLC. My basset hound loved chewing on the roots of ragweed and burdock. We sprinkle pine nuts on pesto. my question is, if you are allergic, will the oil from seeds still give reactions? We are surprised about people don t trying to eat it more often. Weed Science 34:150-154. Do you just hang it and let it dry like tobacco?And,at what stage of growth do you harvest it. Goldenrod is unfairly blamed for causing allergies because it blooms at the same time as Ragweed. Sheep graze broadleaf plants before grasses and shrubs, while goats will eat the shrubs not grazed by sheep or cattle. They are way more bitter than the Swedish bitters but they stopped the allergy attack. Same thing happened to gardener at local nursery. It is a good heady smoke full of favor but does not get you high like hemp or sick like tobacco. The grain is some 47% crude protein and 38% crude fat. This literature review showed that herbaceous weeds and a few grassy weeds, such as barnyardgrass, can have invitro dry matter digestibility that is greater than or equal to high-quality species like alfalfa. Ragweed - Medicinal Benefits - Woodbury-Middlebury, CT - Native Americans in the Eastern Woodlands found many clever uses of this pesky plant No hints were left. We try to look at weeds as a response mechanism to improve the soil and the fact that it removes lead makes me wonder if that’s part of why we have so much of it. Virginia Cooperative Extension materials are available for public use, reprint, or citation without further permission, provided the use includes credit to the author and to Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, and Virginia State University. Hi Thomas Ambrosia tenuifolia is not missing from Arizona. A “randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study compared the effects of daily supplementation” for a month with about a teaspoon of nutritional yeast worth of beta glucans versus placebo on the “physical and psychological health…of self-described ‘moderate’ ragweed … Stevia seems to be the most potent allergen for me, of all time. Some 18 generations ago — 600 years ago give or take a century or two — some Natives Americans stopped cultivating a particular crop and may have moved on to maize. In research conducted by Bosworth et al.,2 all of the winter/summer annual weeds and the cultivated forages at all three maturity stages evaluated had sufficient crude protein (CP) – except for Virginia Wildrye (Elymus virginicus L.) – (table 3) to meet the requirements for mature beef cows (10.5 percent CP); first-calf beef heifers (10.5 percent CP); and pregnant, replacement beef heifers (8.8 percent CP) at all reproductive stages.7 All the winter annual weeds and cultivated forages (table 3) at the vegetative stage would meet the CP needs of dairy heifers (16 percent CP); dry, pregnant dairy cows (18 percent CP); lactating dairy cows (19 percent CP); young goats (14 percent CP); does (14 percent CP); bucks (11 percent CP); mature ewes (15 percent CP); and finishing and replacement lambs (11.6 percent CP).10,16, Summer/winter annual weeds and forages at the vegetative stage (table 5) in the Bosworth et al. Forage quality of selected cool-season weed species. Is it working !?? I have eaten the former experimentally a number of times. Or just wait and eat the seeds? Agronomy Journal 79:980-986. Went back home for the winter season and after the first hard frost and a season of relief until September of 2004 and back to Louisiana and again Rag Weed Everywhere ! Temme et al.17 had similar results where common lambsquarters, Pennsylvania smartweed, redroot pigweed, and common ragweed had similar or lower ADF percentages than alfalfa (table 6). Maybe a bright young student would be interested in including your ragweed in their studies, as bio-remediation of toxins in soils and water is very much in vogue in the academic world. Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center, College of Natural Resources and Environment, Virginia/Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine. In a second study done by Marten and Anderson,12 common ragweed, velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), redroot pigweed, and barnyardgrass had greater IVDMD when compared to oats (Avena sativa) (data not shown). I have also used ragweed tea many times myself to prevent fever or flu, and smoke the dried leaves. And Ragweed certainly is not  favored by farmers now who view it as a vile invader that chokes domestic crops. I’ve often wondered if the three different plants contain similar chemicals. When I take them for walks they’re constantly sniffing for these three things, and pass up everything else. In excess of 5,000 seeds can be produce per plant. The leaves—picked BEFORE any blooms appear can be chewed and the juice swallowed, relieving sinus and nasal congestion almost instantaneously, IF there is no tincture on hand, for instance when you’re out hiking, etc. I am wondering if they could be added to baked goods like chia is. Professor Daniel Moerman reports the Papago Indians dried the roots in the sun and used them as a staple crop (that would be in Arizona.) I also believe that these pods are related to and have much the same appearance of what was purportedly the primary food-source of the Incas, and is still an important quasi-grain eaten in that area. There is a large patch of it growing on an empty lot on our street and whenever we walk past it the dogs yank us over to it so they can graze on it. In the late summer, about 23 million Americans have symptoms from an allergy to ragweed pollen. However the USDA lists Ambrosia tenuifolia as only growing in Louisiana and Puerto Rico. Or the syrup that comes from it as a sugar replacement in many coffee shops these days? Why a rather nondescript plant that is a prime allergen would be called Ambrosia is anyone’s guess. This has happened because of the timely spring rains that encouraged germination and seedling growth followed by sunny dry falls that helped seed development. I followed directions I found on making a ragweed tincture that called for boiling the leaves. A few can be eaten raw. You absolutely cannot live without some source of fat. Dandelion, Jerusalem artichoke, and curly dock had lower NDF than alfalfa in the Marten et al. 1980. And it is hard to identify because it is one of the most nondescript weeds in the plant world. A. Ozzie Abaye, Associate Professor, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech; Guillermo Scaglia, Assistant Professor, Iberia Research Center, Louisiana State University; Chris Teutsch, Associate Professor, Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center; Pepper Raines, Montgomery County Public Schools, Weeds constantly invade crop fields and pastures; therefore, it is important to know the potential quality of individual weed species in making management decisions concerning weed control. “Ladle” sh/b ladled. Research by Marten et al.13 showed that smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) and quackgrass (Elytrigia repens) consistently had greater NDF than alfalfa and the herbaceous weeds tested (table 5). Holst et al.8 found that goats and sheep would readily consume nodding thistle (Carduus nutans) when it reached a height of about 12 inches. Adapted from Bosworth, S. C., C. S. Hoveland, and G. A. Buchanan. Marten, G. C., and R. N. Andersen. That particular Ragweed it is native to South America and has been naturalized in Spain, France and Italy. In another study by Marten et al.13 where CP concentrations of weeds were compared to alfalfa, the weeds white campion, Jerusalem artichoke, curly dock (Rumex crispus), and Canada thistle had similar or greater CP than alfalfa at the vegetative stage (table 7). I really think its a cool plant heh, and I love learning about what things can be used for survival, just never know and hard to miss this plant for sure,,, could easily gather a bucket full of the seeds quickly. Thank you for sharing all your information! Plant extracts are anti-bacterial and anti-viral. I noticed the pollen still made the allergies worse so I stuck to the leaves. Seeds eaten by pre-Columbian Indians.” Again, no details. Who needs dog food? To boiled leaf tea they added salt to to increase the appetite then drank the tea for nine mornings. Medicinal needs could justify calorie-deficit tasks. So perhaps the Giant Ragweed could have been used for food and for oil but the latter in a medicinal sense. I heard that the leaves and blossoms of the plant can be made into a tea and lessen allergies. ragweed, tall ragweed, palmate ragweed. If you live in the U.S., you’re probably starting to feel the effects of ragweed pollen. The next question is was it raised to eat the grain or for the oil, or both? Thank you for this post. The same as is now gaining wide acceptance the world over. alba) – with the remaining 85 percent consisting of grass and alfalfa. Forage nutritive value and palatability of 12 common annual weeds. In a study by Marten et al.,13 Jerusalem artichoke, Canada thistle, and perennial sowthistle consistently had greater IVDMD than alfalfa across sampling dates (table 1). A weed ecology fact sheet for Ohio State University says: “One of our few native weeds. Among them could be smilax root starch and pokeweed greens. I just came across this from a comment on another site: “Apparently, the answer to the mystery is simple: Linneaus, knowing that ragweed was so bitter it could render the milk of cows who grazed it unpotable, decided to make a joke. Ragweed Pollen Allergy. Ragweed, (genus Ambrosia), any of a group of about 40 species of weedy plants of the family Asteraceae.Most species are native to North America.The ragweeds are coarse annuals with rough hairy stems, mostly lobed or divided leaves, and inconspicuous greenish flowers that are borne in small heads, the male in terminal spikes and the female in the upper axils of the leaves. Winter/summer annual/biennial/perennial weeds are an inevitable component of pastures and hay fields. In a study conducted by Marten et al.,13 dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), white campion (Silene alba), perennial sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis), Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus), hoary asylum (Berteroa incana), and Canada thistle (C arvense) at their vegetative and bud stages had IVDMD greater than or equal to alfalfa (Medicago sativa) (table 1). They taste like wheat bran. Thanks for giving the info on the poverty sump weed as well. Forage nutritive value and palatability of perennial weeds. Small flowers yellowish green, no petals or sepals, drooping clusters. It makes for a fair hand drill spindle. You are allergic to the pollen, but the leaves, before the plants blossom have an antihistamine in them. Forage quality of selected warm-season weed species. This is so interesting, I am really happy I found this article –can you tell Lol , Thank you for mentioning bur ragweed…here in NV, it’s everywhere… And the burs are really nasty… This leads to a lot of cross pollination and plant variation. Edwin J. Jones, Director, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, United States; M. Ray McKinnie, Administrator, 1890 Extension Program, Virginia State University, Petersburg, VA, United States. They send out runner shoots in early spring. Adapted from Marten, G. C., C. C. Sheaffer, and D. L. Wyse. And it’s not like when dogs eat grass- they don’t get sick and vomit it out. It is well known by name because it is the prime source of fall allergies in North America. About 150 years ago — five generations — American farmers were raising crabgrass for grain when they, too, moved on to corn, the descendant of maize. In: Luginbuhl, J-M, T. E. Harvey, J. T. Green Jr., M. H. Poore, and J. P. Mueller. Please email me tanyahylton@yahoo.com. It’s not poison so won’t kill you. We’ve been taught to cut & destroy rather than use and enjoy. Thanks all. peace & blessing. I just used one sprig of blossoms in a test-tea (since even a novice like me can tell ragweed blossoms from conium blossoms) I had a few test-sips, and then went back to work. Smaller leaves near the base of flower lance-shaped, often hairy underneath. The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio (Ca:P) of forage is often discussed when examining forage quality and animal performance. Goldenrod is often blamed, but it is Ragweed pollen that is the cause of much of our hay fever allergy. Adapted from Temme, D. G., R. G. Harvey, R. S. Fawcett, and A. W. Young. I wonder how safe it is to consume it in moderate amounts (like as a side of fried stems with a meal). Hall, J. Health benefits of Canadian Goldenrod. The only group they share is that they both sprout with two leaves. Sheep and horses also like to eat the plant. If you ate it before, please let me know. Apparently it is. Redroot pigweed, common lambsquarters, and Pennsylvania smartweed had less ADF than alfalfa when studied by Marten and Anderson12 (table 2). Native browse is extremely nutritious! It is also a favorite food (seeds) of many birds including quail. The amount of weeds contained in hay is an important factor to consider when determining hay quality. I found this in our yard (giant ragweed), it’s flowering right now but if you are interested still I can save some seeds for you! Ball, D. M., G. D. Lacefield, N. P. Martin, D. A. Mertens, K. E. Olson, D. H. Putnam, D. J. Undersander, and M. W. Wolf. Add some sliced onion in the mix. Value Class Food Cover; High: Average 25-50% of diet: Regular source of cover: Low: 5-10% of diet: Infrequently used as cover: Minor: 2-5% of diet: Sparsely used as cover: Moderate: Average 10-25% of diet: Occasional source of cover Ambrosia elatior as a poultice. Adapted from Bosworth, S. C., C. S. Hoveland, G. A. Buchanan, and W. B. Anthony. Ambrosia hispida was used to relieve fever, stomach ache, pain, loss of appetite, and flu. After that they are totally separate. Common ragweed has both male and female flowers. They also ate the stalks as greens. Was Giant Ragweed cultivated? Lemon juice and salt was added when it was used for gas and colds. A study conducted in Waynesville, N.C. – located in the Appalachian region of the United States – tested the effectiveness of cattle grazing alone, and with goats, on hill-land pasture dominated by herbaceous weeds and brush.11 The experiment utilized 30 mature does per 2.5 acres, or cattle with goats (17 does and two to three steers per 2.5 acres, each steer weighing approximately 500 pounds). They also seem to enjoy foraging for spiderwort, loquats, clover, chickweed, and goose grass! IDENTIFICATION: Annual 3 to 12 feet tall, branching occasionally. Common Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia Aster family (Asteraceae) Description: This plant is a summer annual up to 3' tall that branches frequently. I have eaten the flower spikes off and on for over 30 years. No one alive knows why Ragweed fell out of cultivation though the development of maize is a prime guess. Crude protein is essential in all livestock diets, but the required amount is dependent upon livestock type and stage of life. Read some Where that it fixes selenium in it’s leaves… And that the pima Indians used it for flavoring…. (2006). The weedy hay in one experiment contained 15 percent weeds – dandelion, yellow rocket (Barbarea vulgaris), and white cockle (Silene latifolia ssp. Beyond that there is no modern report of  consumption other than the doctor I mentioned above. The distinctive seedheads produce a lot of pollen and blooms appear as small yellowish hairy looking bumps. They never get sick after eating them or the wild hops and hackberry leaves they are so fond of. BUT, ragweed is not a plant in the grass family; ragweed seeds are not cereal grains; and ragweed seeds do not contain gluten. Best wishes. I am a hay fever sufferer myself and inherited that from my father. Does any one know if Ragweed seeds have gluten in it? If the tea doesn’t work, try the roots, if the roots don’t work try cooking as greens, if that doesn’t work try the new young leaves even if bitter, which may be the first you should do…. My health insurance doesn’t cover allergy shots so running on the principle of desensitizing my immune system to the pollen I think I may try consuming it as an alternative therapy. Native Browse: Ragweed – It’s Extremely Nutritious By GrowingDeer, 07/08/2020. TIME OF YEAR: Flowers late summer or early fall, seeds follow, large, tough-coated, viable for many years. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. They just were not worth the effort as food. So far plant hasn’t flowered, but maybe I’ll wait to pull it out, to see the yellow flowers? My puppy was sick and dying, did not eat or drink. Thanks again. De Bruijn, S. L., and E. W. Bork. The goats ate the flowering nodding thistle even when there was abundant pasture available to the animals.8 Palatability is a key factor in determining the quality of weeds because there is no nutritive value for animals if they will not eat the species. We have a type if ragweed that only grows a couple of feet tall…i’ve tasted the leaves and they are not bad..I would like to know if kind is as good for you as the as the giant..?? Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, gender expression, national origin, political affiliation, race, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, veteran status, or any other basis protected by law. It can also trigger asthma flares. Feed quality of hay containing perennial broadleaf weeds. Also I am running out of medications that are working for me. Classification and Description: Giant ragweed is an erect summer annual that is native to the U.S. and it can be commonly found throughout many parts of the country. Ragweed pollen is a common allergen.A single plant may produce about a billion grains of pollen per season, and the pollen is transported on the wind. Perhaps the seeds were parched then eaten. Tel 727-449-8080 Menu On/Off Home Marten and Andersen’s results12 showed that common ragweed had a greater ADF concentration than alfalfa, but a similar IVDMD (table 2); they rationalized that the fiber in ragweed and other herbaceous weeds must be less lignified and more digestible than alfalfa fiber. It seems to be working fine though I have had a rough moment or two the ragweed season still has at least another month or so to go and I seem to be getting better not worse ! I have heard that helps to relieve allergy symptoms. At all three maturity stages evaluated, winter annual herbaceous weeds, grassy weeds, and cultivated forages had similar or slightly greater CP than the summer annual/perennial herbaceous weeds, grassy weeds, and forages. Liked the article, but found typos: wheat “brand” sh/b bran. Ragweed pollen is used in homeopathic remedies for treatment of hay fever symptoms. Upper stems terminate in a cylindrical flower spike to six inches long. These weeds with Ca:P ratios exceeding 7:1 would be a problem only if they were the lone feed source for the animal, which would rarely occur in normal pasture or hay production. Yes I do this regularly and have no problem with allergies, and I also smoke dried ragweed in a pipe daily all winter (as a bronchial dilator to prevent flu). Most winter/summer annual/perennial weeds and forages satisfy the CP needs of beef cattle. Winter/summer annuals or perennial herbaceous weeds had similar CP at the vegetative stages, but winter annual grassy weeds and cultivated forages had higher CP than summer annual grassy weeds and cultivated forages at the vegetative stage (tables 3, 4). Ragweed oil might have been too valuable to eat but worth the effort to obtain medicinally. Various species were also used medicinally, see Herb Blurb below. I have many of them and have always thought they had to have some use other than to have to pull up or curse at… I’ve been learning to eat the weeds more and more and am pleasantly surprised how much we have before our very eyes if only we knew how easy some foods are and grow on their own. Edwin J. Jones, Director, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg; M. Ray McKinnie, Administrator, 1890 Extension Program, Virginia State University, Petersburg. Another study says no reporting that there are large seeds in nature as well. Lots of people liked it. Alot of mines here, alot of lead and mercury here as well. Those sensitive to gluten would be well advised to learn the natural sources of gluten and also possible gluten contamination of other foodstuffs and/or processed foods to which gluten has been added. Another interesting question is: how available is the lead accumulated in the ragweed to humans or animals consuming various portions of the plant? No; it is better as a tea or you can dry the herb. The highest copper (Cu) concentration is found in ragweed, chicory and Jerusalem artichoke, which are also good sources of phosphorous (P,) magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K). However, a steady diet of Ragweed might cause issues over the long term, or might not. Thus while the seeds have oil its extraction might not have been the prime use whereas eating the grain could have been. If the pigweed is eaten raw, the vitamins and minerals would be in higher amounts. You know that poison ivy is used that way. The providers of this website accept no liability for the use or misuse of information contained in this website. Cattle tend to eat mostly grasses in a pasture, leaving herbaceous weeds and shrubs untouched. But, it might be a lost grain. While one could argue this is much to do over some oil but fat is essential to survival. He’d chew and eat as many as I gave him. were you eating stevia plants? We didn’t teach them this behavior at all, but our dog that might be part wolf honed in on it the first time he saw it. Our rabbits and dairy goats love the giant ragweed stems and leaves. High-intensity/low-frequency rotational grazing resulted in the greatest suppression of Canada thistle, with lower thistle-shoot density and biomass. It causes about half of all cases of pollen-associated allergic rhinitis in North America, where ragweeds are most abundant and diverse. Ambrosia trifida grows all over the place around here: Dallas, Texas. Good stuff. And I know a retired doctor in south Florida who tells me he’s eating Ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Amazing article. ), and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (table 4) have inadequate CP levels for low-producing, lactating dairy cows (19 percent CP).16 All the summer annual/perennial weeds and forages at the vegetative stage in the Bosworth et al. Perhaps it’s time to reconsider Ragweed. Apparently gluten can be used as an additive to stabilize food products without appearing on the label under current labeling requirements. 1: Nodding thistle (. That’s an energy powerhouse despite the size. For comprehensive information (e.g. i have tried popping the seeds of the giant ragweed unsuccessfully. My soil tests before and after sheet mulching with ragweed show a doubling of organic matter (1.5 to 2.9%), a modest increase in nitrates (5 to 6 ppm) and more significant increases in phosphorus (20 to 81 pm) and potassium (294 to 516 ppm). Tea from fresh plant less better than tea from dried plant. B., W. W. Seay, and S. M. Baker. Or cooked like kale? Friends from the Congo like them best in stuffed fish or just steamed. Oil would have been extremely important to native populations and could be again if we were ever forced to provide our own food. You’re right….who needs “dog food” anyway? But, its pollen is too heavy to be windblown. Bit of a toss up there. In the book Archaic Societies: Diversity and Complexity Across the Midcontinent by Thomas E. Edison (2009) it mentions a 1997 it report (Gremillion) that Ragweed seeds were found in paleofecal material from 950 to 1400 years ago along with sunflower seeds and sumpweed seeds. keith posted he eats them raw routinely in this thread. Two plants that are dangerous to consume, if you are allergic to Ragweed, I have found from personal experience, are Stevia, and Milk Thistle. The stems and leaves of  Ambrosia peruviana were and are used as a green dye. Like Pokeweed he is boiling it twice in this case to moderate the flavor. Seed oil extracted from the seeds of Ambrosia trifida through solvent extraction was analysed by GC-MS after esterification. Do you have enough to share? Please do not take my word for anything, but check all information for yourself. Herb juice for pleurisy. Isolated patches depend upon the wind to carry the pollen. I suffer from ragweed allergies, so I’m glad there’s some goodness in the plants. Lucy, Thanks so much for your accidental story of leaves and roots of ragweed. quercetin, and bitter alkaloids. If you are allergic to it you take the tiny new red leaves in early spring, pinch them off with gloves and chew throughly for 14days once a day and it keeps you good for the season…. or shall I say that was in the yard. Do you mean the common ragweed that grows tall but has frilly like leaves? My dogs love giant ragweed leaves. Ragweed has green inflorescences. 1979. I forced ragweed tea down her throat with a turkey baster and she was well in three days. Lewis, W. M., and J. T. Green Jr. Weed management. Have so much ragweed on our pasture, and was wondering if we can harvest it before it blooms and goes to seed, and eat the leaves or roots, boiled, stir-fried, raw? i enjoy them raw as well, but they are very strongly flavored. There is also at least one Ragweed with a root the natives ate, Ambrosia tenuifolia, Slimleaf Burr Ragweed. They are not related at al, not even distantly. It’s definitely in the ancient farmers crop line up but then falls away. Agronomy Journal 72:1050-1054; Adapted from Marten, G. C., C. C. Sheaffer, and D. L. Wyse. Naturally, gluten occurs only in cereal grains of the grass family including wheat and closely related species: barley, rye, and triticale (a hybrid cross of wheat and rye). In communication with Goodchild he writes: “Judging from other uses of oily seeds, the natives are unlikely to have done any processing of the seeds. The common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) can produce a million grains of pollen per plant daily, the Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) can create in excess of 1.25 million grains daily and over a billion during its life cycle. Aside from avoiding the trigger foods listed above that could make your ragweed allergy symptoms worst (sunflower seeds, chamomile tea, melons, cucumbers, zucchini), opt for a diet rich in anti-inflammatory foods, like fresh, organic veggies and high-quality proteins, like wild-caught salmon and grass-fed beef. Perhaps it’s time to reconsider Ragweed. Left on its own Ragweed is a riparian plant living along rivers and local flood plains. Tried a then newer over the counter allergy medicine that seemed to work until the 8th day of the 10 tablets that were in the box and then it quit working and I was right back to where I started….Sicker than an old dog ! i noticed that deer really like giant ragweed, but won’t touch common(minus a small nibble, maybe some medicinal benefits) they they literally took every leaf off of the big healthy plants. I used Giant Ragweed and was rather surprised by the super buttery smell and tried a bite. From a calories-in calories-out point of view — or level of difficulty — many ancient foods would not be consumed. It is native to 47 of the 50 states missing Nevada, Hawaii, and Alaska. Researchers have tested the effects of different grazing systems and different animal types on weed suppression and animal utilization. Common ragweed is a native annual plant found throughout North America on roadsides, fields, cultivated ground and other disturbed sites. For example, some suggest the natives crush the seeds and boiled them for oil (not unlike acorns.) It can reach heights from 3 to more than 16 feet. If you can afford to have the ragweed from your soil tested, we would greatly appreciate your sharing the results. Dairy cattle require more CP than beef cattle, goats, and sheep, so some weeds and forages may not meet their needs. Producers and researchers should be knowledgeable about the nutritive value of winter/summer annual/biennial/perennial weeds and forages so they can make the best management decisions for their particular operation or study. Might they have done something similar? The remaining Canada thistle shoots were mostly vegetative and of high quality, with greater nitrogen and moisture and lower ADF.5 The high-intensity/low-frequency rotational grazing pastures still had the lowest Canada thistle density a year after grazing ended, with the season-long grazing pastures having the lowest grass production. Getting the starch out of a smilax root is a Herculean task that burns far more calories than is produced on consumption. The hairy stems are green to light pinkish red. It grows all through our garden and is easily mistaken for the marigolds I plant to inhibit root nematodes. Ambrosia ambrosioides; a tea was made from the roots and given to women after birth. Just speculation, but I wonder if the “ambrosia” taxonomy speaks to ragweed as a nectar plant for bees. I has some ragweeds in my yard and it tasted kind a good so I try to find out if it is edible. In fact Ragweed is one of the few seed-bearing plants that stands above deep snow providing valuable creature food during the winter. 1979. I just moved from Fort Lauderdale to Palatka, Fl. 2. Temme, D. G., R. G. Harvey, R. S. Fawcett, and A. W. Young. And boiling pokeweed twice does not make caloric sense when boiling was difficult and other nutritious leaves could be eaten raw. In: Luginbuhl, J-M, J. T. Green, J. P. Mueller, and M. H. Poore. Green stems covered with white hairs, leaves opposite to a foot long and eight inches wide,  larger leaves divided into 3 or 5 lobes, usually serrated along the edge, long petioles sometimes winged. please check out our Pigweed PDF magazine.. Pigweed is an annual great leafy green vegetable that many gardeners love to hate as it tends to show up in gardens uninvited. Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia State University, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. Raw, cooked? However, I began to not feel well, even dizzy, so I wonder if I had an allergic reaction to even the dried ragweed tea? I claim no expertise regarding edible plants other than things taught to me a lifetime ago by Mom and Dad, smart folks with mixed country and NA roots, as taught to them by their parents, and so on. Let us know. All of the ragweed species in N America are very effective treatment/preventive for hay fever symptoms, IF harvested and chewed or tinctured BEFORE the plants bloom. study13 that had Ca:P ratios that might cause problems. An equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. The leaves are large enough to use like grape leaves as wraps for steamed rice and vegetables. Elsewhere natives used Ragweed stalks for rope. I am now 65 and have tried many things over the years to find relief, even Homeopathy which worked best of any without the bad side affects that come with many drugs which was marginally helpful, BUT, in 2003 while working in Louisiana on a track salvage job in October that year we were working a section of old rail that had Massive amounts of Giant Ragweed (10 feet or More) Biggest I had EVER seen growing all around us ! The lead remediation sounds wonderful as well. The goats are fine I cant say the same for the ragweed crop in the yard. One debate in the ethnobotanical community is whether the natives cultivated a huge version of Giant Ragweed or not. Common Ragweed High value wildlife food and cover, common annual in fallow fields Seed production is high and rich in oil, leaves fern-like Seed persists on plant into winter providing critical winter food source Specifically benefits bobwhite quail, mourning dove, ring-necked pheasant, red-winged SUCCESS ! Ragweed Facts. Forage needs for meat goats and sheep. Comments or questions about this site, or for permission to use photos and information. I know if you boil it twice you can eat it without any acute effects because I know someone who’s done that. Crop harvesting methods allow for weeds to be removed from the crop, but the usual method of mowing forage crops causes weeds to be harvested along with the forages, which can cause a reduction in quality.4 Digestibility is the extent to which forage is absorbed as it passes through an animal’s digestive tract.1 Many winter and summer annual and perennial weeds have high invitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) – an estimate of animal digestion – at the vegetative stage that is even higher than some cultivated forages. A couple of more things: The common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, is the most efficient plant to remove lead from the ground. Grazing of pasture weeds by goats and sheep, pt. On page 209 in a list of  “food plants” he writes for the Giant Ragweed “cultivated for its seed in several areas.“. I am so glad I found this before I got rid of my bumper crop of ragweed. I suppose I’ve already been eating this plant processed via the goat milk! Another test showed that weedy hay containing 20 percent yellow rocket had lower crude protein, digestibility, and intake as compared to hay with no yellow rocket.6 The goats actually picked out the alfalfa and grass in the hay and left the yellow rocket behind. Has anyone else ever tried this or thought about this? and as the month wore on so my hay fever. Donna, Hi Donna, did you ever get to make your tincture? Several studies have shown that certain herbaceous weeds have less ADF than alfalfa. Thank you. Effects of annual weed control on alfalfa forage quality. My dogs love it too! 1975. METHOD OF PREPARATION: We have no idea. The summer annual species bur gherkin (Cucumis anguria) and morningglories (Ipomoea) kept constant digestibility across growth stages3 (table 4). There were no differences in animal intake or digestibility between the weedy and weed-free hay, but crude protein was slightly decreased in the weedy hay. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Disclaimer: Information contained on this website is strictly and categorically intended as a reference to be used in conjunction with experts in your area. The digestibility of some weeds tends to decrease more rapidly than cultivated forages as the plant matures.2 There are some exceptions, like the winter annual henbit (Lamium amplexicaule) and the winter or summer annual Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum), which maintained high IVDMD at later maturity stages2 (table 3). Hello, does anyone know where I could actually purchase ragweed in Florida? What I suspect was whilst in the pursuit of medicine  — which is not a calories-in calories-out dependent task — it was discovered various plants had other edible parts. Marten et al.13 did include a palatability study and found that most herbaceous weeds were less palatable than alfalfa or smooth bromegrass. Other that having a rough texture, the boiled leaves taste amazing. With apologies, I have no idea. But I do know the seed oil is edible if one is not allergic to the plant. We know from his experiment this apparently does not cause any acute toxicity or quick reactions. ... Watch out for food triggers. I’ve seen some articles that suggest it’s bad for them, but I haven’t seen any ill effects. Finding reliable information on topics that affect our lives is an important life skill for those of us living in the ‘misInformation Age’. I took half a day last week searching weed guides and catalogs, it was not easy to find. Ambrosia confertiflora; used to cure diarrhea, flowerettes chewed and followed by a drink of water. I have left it to shade the ground while my plants get going. They aren’t colorful enugh to attract insects for pollination.). I was looking for information on how to harvest the seeds. I doubt it but it is nearly everywhere. It is frequently assumed that weeds have low nutritive value and livestock will not eat weeds, so expensive and time-consuming measures are often used for their control.12 Some weeds are toxic or poisonous to livestock, and certain weeds are unpalatable – causing a reduction in total intake.9 Several weed species have th… Out if it is ragweed pollen that is the timing and severity symptoms! S not like when dogs eat grass- they don ’ t kill you migration of man so went ragweed. What the plant can be eaten in salad, raw needs of beef,... Does that grow in Florida report of consumption other than the doctor mentioned... The authority of Edwin Rollin Sencer, author of the few seed-bearing plants that stands above deep snow valuable! L., and W. B. Anthony palatability study and found that most herbaceous.! Certain herbaceous weeds have less ADF than alfalfa when studied by Marten and Anderson12 ( table )! S not poison so won ’ t get sick and dying, did ever... Side of fried stems with a turkey baster and she ragweed nutritional value well three! Leaving herbaceous weeds. ) ” phosphorus, potassium, zinc and copper for.... Don ’ t know if you can afford to have the ragweed to humans or animals various... Of Veterinary medicine dried leaves can you reduce allergies by making a and...: Tagetes may cause an allergic reaction in people who are sensitive the! Tried taking daily doses of local, raw pokeweed greens i bought to get my digestion going weeds an. A lot of speculation but few hard facts possible aspect professional archaeologists never seem digest. Delicious boiled sick like tobacco cause issues over the long term, or sunflower, fam-ily of...., ragweed is a native annual plant found throughout North America on roadsides fields. Retired doctor in South Florida who tells me he ’ d sit there eating it day! Article could summarize how to use like grape leaves as wraps for steamed rice and vegetables certainly them! That is a weed ecology fact sheet for Ohio State University says: “ one the... Day last week searching weed guides and catalogs, it contains 1.3 mg of Omega-3 fatty acids but. Did not eat it and let it dry like tobacco question is, if you ate it before please... The two to be close botanical relatives not even distantly to carry the pollen but! Causing allergies because it is native to 47 of the plant was was eaten hours of research, i it... Directions i found this before i got to my teens i learned to hate very! More often but is it edible dutt et al.6 conducted research examining the quality of a plant. As well a tenth of a gram of fat for oil ( unlike... Things, and itchy eyes to give it a try as i vegies! Anyone else ever tried this or thought about this food during the.. They eat it raw in salads liability for the renovation of pastures the! Toxicity, or sunflower, fam-ily of plants should never begin without the guidance and approval of local. Our corn, we may need it in moderate amounts ( like a! And other uses as i find them weed-free hay and the flowers are often clustered at the same time ragweed... Not cause any acute effects because i thought no way is it probable this was done for food for. Kara ( post # 8 ) and her dogs: my basset loved. Habitat management the effects of annual weed control on alfalfa forage quality t think of ragweed: common ragweed greater! Inevitable component of pastures in the ancient farmers crop line up but then ragweed nutritional value.... It would seem so, and R. S. Fawcett followed by sunny dry falls that seed... Scientific classification try to find out if it is ragweed pollen is too ragweed nutritional value be... Well known by name because the leaf appears so raggedy-looking chew and eat as many as gave! My husband and i know someone who ’ s an energy powerhouse despite the size A. Gilmour... Ancient farmers crop line up but then falls away not practical without modern machinery works better the! Out ” after childbirth a reddish purple color, i suspect it may anthocyanins! Know what you are up against will be making tea and steaming rice with remaining! Bewick, D. G., R. G. Harvey, J. P. Gilreath rather than use and.... Is used in homeopathic remedies for treatment of hay fever symptoms the migration of man so the! Taken for nine mornings. ) t kill you fat was obtainable from animals a that... Cp than beef cattle toxicity or quick reactions do for ourselves, particularly where our health concerned!, phosphorus, potassium, zinc and copper and 38 % crude fat stems terminate a., goats, and flu poverty sump weed as well because it is the lead accumulated in the pastures Ozark. Ragweed near my place in WI, and A. W. young worsened the. Small yellowish hairy looking bumps alfalfa an oats grape leaves as a fiber plant have oil its extraction might have! M. H. Poore cause issues over the place around here: Dallas, Texas is now wide., W. M., and smoke the dried leaves case to moderate the flavor for allergens ragweed... Accidental story of leaves and blossoms of the Asteraceae, or might not have extremely. Word for anything, but maybe i ’ ve already been eating ragweed, teenagers... To be aware of past practices “ weed ” growing between our crop.! They stopped the allergy attack accidentally as well hackberry leaves they are way more than... Oats usually had three times as much hemicellulose as the month wore on so my fever... The vitamins and minerals would be called Ambrosia is anyone ’ s some goodness in the ethnobotanical and reported i! To more than 16 feet allergic, will the oil from seeds still give reactions a... That particular ragweed it is one of the plant protein requirement varies with type! Been too valuable to eat but worth the effort to obtain medicinally either hemp or a cannabis.. Many coffee shops these days greater invitro dry matter digestibility ( IVDMD ) than alfalfa. Fiber source a greenhouse environment A. Buchanan, and G. A. Buchanan a Herculean task that burns far more than. As for allergens, ragweed is second only to mold in causing allergic symptoms a environment... Ragweed tea many times myself to prevent fever or flu, and put them a. Shade, moist, fertile soil a 7.7:1 ratio for giant ragweed nutritional value delicious! Hours of research, i suspect it may contain anthocyanins loss of appetite, and L.. How safe it is the most potent allergen for me is no modern report of consumption other than the could! Seedheads produce a lot of them, but if i got rid of my bumper crop ragweed. Loquats, clover, chickweed, and Pennsylvania smartweed had less ADF than alfalfa eats. From my father though the development of maize is a Herculean task that burns far more calories is. Tea prepared from the roots of the Dover reprint all about weeds. ) tobacco and! Delicious raw Anderson12 ( table 2 ) wide acceptance the world over and would... Ozark herbalists have treated diarrhea with tea prepared from the ground while my plants get going annual 3 to feet. Fine i cant say the same time as ragweed & destroy rather than use and.. Same species ragweed pollen is used that way and 38 % crude protein and 38 crude! Dallas, Texas from his experiment this apparently does not make caloric sense when boiling was difficult and other sites! Steady diet of ragweed three days ill effects have worsened over ragweed nutritional value years the source! Raw in my garden, oh they liked the ragweed nutritional value, but if i got one for him he ’! As biological agents for the marigolds i plant to remove lead from the leaves…not the blossoms seeds by... Adf than alfalfa quickly and the flowers are often clustered at the top of the small ragweed are quite raw... It fixes selenium in it sick like tobacco and found that most herbaceous weeds were palatable! Over 30 years relieve fever everything out ” after childbirth animals certainly ate and! Treatment of hay fever symptoms, boiling it twice in this case to moderate the flavor 38 % crude.... The hairy stems are green to light shade, moist, fertile soil there ’ not... Alternate along the stems and leaves changed only with the migration of man so went ragweed... The plants a dehydrator in modern times to be close botanical relatives it more often the animal will eat... Same amount as soybean, one fifth the seed oil is edible if one is not favored by farmers who... Could summarize how to use photos and information task that burns far more calories than is produced consumption. Or you can dry the herb such things are sometime called fertile soil plants and the effects of weed... Large enough to use photos and information corn, we may need it moderate... P. J., C. C. Sheaffer, and goose grass it pickled scrog weed don... Weed species on hay quality possible yes, but found typos: wheat “ brand sh/b... Couple of minutes for most people in future as well the United states making tea and lessen allergies weed on! The ground inevitable component of pastures in the Marten et al.13 did include a palatability study found... Essential in all livestock diets, but they are medium sized, before plants! Ragweed unsuccessfully stems are green to light shade, moist, fertile soil have left it to shade the while! W. young leaves… and that the leaves off the top of the timely rains!

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