what is maintainability in computer science

However, the existing surveys either summarized this topic at a high level together with other topics (e.g., test-case selection and test-suite reduction) [1], or just reviewed test-case prioritization techniques before 2013 [74, 75]. Since the ultimate goal of regression testing is to detect regression faults, the test-case prioritization goal is usually specified as how fast the regression faults can be detected. Therefore, the standards (DO178 [ARI 92, RTA 11], IEC 61508 [IEC 08b], CENELEC EN 50128 [CEN 01, CEN 11], ISO 26262 ([ISO 11]), IEC 60880 [IEC 06], etc.) REMIS has currently completed 3 of 6 increments in migrating to the GCSS-AF IF. Reliability is an attribute of any computer-related component (software, or hardware, or a network, for example) that consistently performs according to its specifications. (2009) indicated that unlimited repairs are impractical for most systems, and proposed an approximate calculation method, which can be applied to systems for which only a limited number of repairs are available. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. where F(t) = 1 − R(t) is the cumulative distribution function for failure time, G(t) for wait time, and H(t) for repair time. The generated pseudocode is shown in the following. probability of failure, wait, and repair, which can be calculated as follows. Yiling Lou, ... Dan Hao, in Advances in Computers, 2019. In this chapter, we summarize variations of these metrics and adaptations of procedural ones as well (Abran and Nguyenkim, 1993; Lawler and Kitchenham, 2003). The analysis of reliabilities of process systems often uses models based on the Weibull distribution, for which the cumulative distribution function for reliability, i.e. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123749130000081, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978178548117850009X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123704801500025, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781785481178500064, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128023013000028, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123743640500151, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781558609006500063, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444634559501082, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065245818300615, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444639653504918, Modernization of Reliability and Maintainability Information System (REMIS) into the Global Combat Support System-Air Force (GCSS-AF) Framework*, Network Analysis, Architecture, and Design (3), An introduction to modern software quality assurance, Abran and Nguyenkim, 1993; Lawler and Kitchenham, 2003, Jiun-Lang Huang, ... Stephen F. Cauley, in, Depending on performance, portability, and, Code inspections are good at finding defects of, 24th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering, Many methods for reliability, availability, and, A Survey on Regression Test-Case Prioritization, Modern software systems keep evolving to refine software functionality and, 27th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering, WMC represents the sum of the complexities of its methods, RFC is the number of different methods that can be executed when an object of that class receives a message, Chidamber and Kemerer define Lack of Cohesion in Methods as the number of pairs of methods in a class that do not have at least one field in common minus the number of pairs of methods in the class that share at least one field. Jiun-Lang Huang, ... Stephen F. Cauley, in Electronic Design Automation, 2009. This project was a technically successful application of ADM techniques to large-scale systems engineering, development, integration, and operational processes of a major component of the USAF IDMS. There has been quite a bit of argument in the literature on what constitutes an art or a science in the software production cycle. Passengers (users) of the airline system expect accurate delivery of information (in this case the passengers themselves) to the destination. Maintainability introduces constraints on: design: it is necessary to implement abstraction, modularity, readability and complexity management, taking into account best practices; execution: this involves taking into account performance constraints to ensure the possibility of being able to change the application (available memory size, processor load, cycle time, size of the data handled, number of processed messages, etc. In this setting, internal attributes used to define these properties, are captured through software metrics, and properties are expressed in terms of valid values for these metrics. Availability (also known as operational availability) is the relationship between the frequency of mission-critical failures and the time to restore service. An omission defect is when functionality is missing from the code that should have been there. The invisibility of a method is the percentage of the total classes from which the method is not visible, NLC counts the lines but excludes empty lines and comments, CBO measures the number of classes coupled to a given class. For example, based on the papers collected for this survey (details shown in Section 2), recent 3 years witness another upsurge in test-case prioritization paper publications due to the popularity of continuous integration. Test-case prioritization was first proposed in regression testing to deal with the trade-off between what ideal regression testing should do and what is affordable by scheduling the execution order of test cases [67]. Coupling is also used to describe software as well as systems. It is clear from this discussion that the only activity to establishing safety of a software application and ensuring its maintainability is quality management. The compilation time could be a severe limitation for fault simulators that require recompilation for each faulty circuit. The native machine code approach generates the native machine code directly without the need of compilation; this makes it a more viable solution to fault simulation. Failures of components that have no effect on the mission, at least when they fail, are not considered in these calculations. In regression testing, the test cases designed for an old version are usually reused to test its latter versions to verify the code changes between versions. In this sense the term reliability can be coupled with confidence in that it describes how users have confidence that the network and system will meet their requirements. Maintainability is a major stake of professional software development. In addition to the different A level requirements above, you will also need at least five GCSEs (A-C) including science, English, and maths. probability of survival is as follows. Technical benefits of modernizing the REMIS software have been identified by the ability to interface with COTS products to replace existing custom code in the case of Increment-2 where the REMIS Standard Reports were converted to Cognos ReportNet reports. This is a very important parameter as the system is subjected to changes throughout the software life cycle. (Redirected from Constant (computer science)) In computer programming, a constant is a value that cannot be altered by the program during normal execution, i.e., the value is constant. RMA refers to reliability, maintainability, and availability. An introduction to the intellectual enterprises of computer science and the art of programming. The fourth area of advantage of the new architecture is its maintainability. Once the machine code has been created and stored in a file, you could in theory just throw away the source code. FIGURE 8.10. Several maintainability issues can be detected using quality metrics. applicable to software applications with a safety objective introduce the concept of safety level and recommend as quality management a basic technique through the application of ISO 9001:2008 [ISO 08] and pre-established and systematic techniques. This might be a defect in which a hard-coded value would be better stored in a file and read at runtime. where β > 0 is the shape parameter, and η > 0 is the scale parameter. More formally, the IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology defines maintainability as: "The ease with which a software system or component can be modified to correct faults, improve performance or other attributes, or adapt to a changed environment." Mapping the simulated digital network to a high-level programming language such as C enhances performance and is portable to any target machine that has a C compiler. Availability, in the context of a computer system, refers to the ability of a user to access information or resources in a specified location and in the correct format. Regression test selection [17–28] aims to select and rerun only the test cases that are affected by code changes. The earliest programming languages were assembly languages, not far removed from the binary-encoded instructions directly executed by the computer. To fully describe this performance class, we add availability to reliability and maintainability. Among the three areas, both test-suite reduction and regression test selection exclude some test executions and may suffer from unsafe test execution (i.e., missing regression faults). Maintainability in engineering design is the relative ease and economy of time and resources with which an engineered installation can be retained in, or restored to, a specified condition through scheduled and unscheduled maintenance. A parallel can be seen with the airline industry. However, in a computation-intensive application we may be able to optimize the system by buffering data during periods of computing. That is, test-case prioritization is usually regarded as scheduling test cases to detect more faults earlier. In cases involving multiple inheritances, the DIT is the maximum length from the node to the root of the tree, PF measures the degree of method overriding in the class inheritance tree. All the advantages listed above would fall short in the light of today’s security risks. The discipline’s first concerns were electronic and mechanical components (Ebeling, 2010). In contrast, test-case prioritization, the target area of this work, simply reorders test executions and does not discard any test case. For example, the emphasis of a network design may be to bound delay: A system supporting point-of-sale transactions may need to guarantee delivery of customer information and completion of the transaction within 15 seconds (where the network delay is on the order of 100s of ms); a Web application can have similar requirements. (4) to (6) in conjunction with Eqs. where z(t) is a dimensionless time that represents the degree of aging, which is defined as follows. In other words, regression test-case prioritization (usually abbreviated as RTP) targets at scheduling the execution order of test cases designed for an old version so as to detect faults in its latter versions as early as possible. When these boundaries are crossed, passengers are likely to use a different airline or not fly at all. Later, Rothermel et al. an art by Donald Knuth in his classic book “The Art of Computer Programming” [9]. Code inspections are good at finding defects of maintainability, reliability, and functionality. (4) belongs to Volterra integral equation of the second kind, for which numerical methods are available (Press et al., 2007). Collectively, they affect both the utility and the life-cycle costs of a product or system. Hardware and software resources are also more efficiently consumed. This resource page presents a methodology that links operations and maintenance goals to the design process, and how it can be applied to any organization. In the actual implementation, each statement is replaced with the corresponding language constructs or machine instructions. Using well established software tools and especially virtualization, the maintenance of the system from the IT point of view is streamlined, as backups, restores, software updates and other maintenance tasks are accomplished in an efficient and well established manner. In computing, scalability is a characteristic of computers, networks, algorithms, networking protocols, programs and applications. These relationships are shown in the following equation, where A is availability. Reliability also requires some degree of predictable behavior. Formally, test-case prioritization is defined as the following process: given any test suite T, test-case prioritization is to find a permutation T′ of T satisfying f(T′) ≥ f(PT), where PT represents any permutation of T and f is a function defined to map permutations of T to real numbers representing the prioritization goal [32]. In this context, maintainability is a function of engineering design. When associated with an identifier, a constant is said to be "named," although the terms "constant" and "named constant" are often used interchangeably. The list of metrics is described in Table 2.1. Finally, maintainability enables to characterize the effort for evolution of a software application. ); documentation: it must be complete and correct, legible, stored in a format to allow analysis and manipulation; diagnosis: ability for diagnostics such as logging, access to important variables, etc. Accounting for as much as 80 percent of a building's life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance expenses often reach three times a building's initial construction costs. Jean-Louis Boulanger, in Certifiable Software Applications 1, 2016. James McGovern, ... Sunil Mathew, in Java Web Services Architecture, 2003. Verify if the input, the processing and the output have been implemented separately. This coupling can occur through method calls, field accesses, inheritance, arguments, return types, and exceptions, DIT is defined as the maximum length from the class node to the root/parent of the class hierarchy tree and is measured by the number of ancestor classes. The system is as open and as secure as the final client would request it to be. These two pieces of work witness the beginning of test-case prioritization, and a large amount of work has been proposed in the following two decades. where Q(t) is the cumulative distribution function for probability of being repaired, i.e. To promote the long-term development of the test-case prioritization topic, it is necessary to review and summarize it systematically. IJCA is a computer science and electronics journal related with Theoretical Informatics, Quantum Computing, Software Testing, Computer Vision, Digital Systems, ... Maintainability of the system is the ability to undergo changes relatively easily. Maintainability is a multifaceted quality attribute - each of the facets must be analyzed to objectively measure it. Therefore, test-case prioritization suffers from both the effectiveness and the efficiency issues. Passengers expect flights to depart and arrive within reasonable time boundaries. (2) and (3) to predict reliability and availability of a process system under changing operating conditions. That’s why the architecture proposed relies on the highest level of security, using authentication, encryption in all transactions and building on top of the elements that corporations use and that trusted IT providers such as Citrix recommend. This activity should be accompanied by a quality control and safety control. Moreover, quality management will be presented in Chapter 9. MTTR usually assumes the logistics time is zero; this is an assumption, which is invalid if a component must be replaced to restore service but takes days to obtain. Regression testing has been widely used during software evolution to ensure that software changes do not bring new regression faults. If these delay boundaries are exceeded, the visualization task fails for that application, forcing the system to use other techniques. Introduction to maintainability. The process consists of finding code fragments that violate structural or semantic properties such as the ones related to coupling and complexity. A reliability defect is one that might affect the running of the system. After all, the program will run perfectly well without it. Test-suite reduction (also denoted as test-suite minimization) [2, 8–16] aims at reducing the number of test cases by excluding redundant test cases. However, test-case prioritization is not the focus of that work. A note about Germany: While the education system in English-speaking countries at least offers the distinction between computer science and software engineering, the German education system almost exclusively talks about “Informatik” (information science) meaning the science of systematic information processing. The three approaches are interpreted code, high-level programming language source code, and native machine code. See more. In this work, an expanded Weibull distribution is used which is applicable when the scale parameter is a function of time (Choi et al., 2005). An example is a search engine, which must support increasing numbers of users, and the number of topics it indexes. Show in that work, the industry case has a product with about 20,000 lines of code consuming 7 weeks on running the entire test suite. Measuring software maintainability is non-trivial and there exists no single metric to measure it accurately. On the surface, Computer Science seems like only programming and not much else. Understanding Nature through Observation About real things like bowling balls, black holes, antimatter, electrons, comets, etc. Furthermore, even taking these alternative goals, test-case prioritization is also an NP-hard problem [73]. While all of those things are important, there is more to computer science than just those things. Migration of REMIS to the GCSS-AF platform achieved both of those objectives. The origins of contemporary reliability engineering can be traced to World War II. The term maintainability corresponds to the ability to update or modify the system under test. In section 5.2.3, we presented the objectives of maintenance of a software application. In addition, predictable delivery is also expected. The term maintainability corresponds to the ability to update or modify the system under test. When delivery times vary greatly, users lose confidence in the timely delivery of information. Furthermore, modern industry companies also suffer from regression testing cost due to the large number of accumulated test cases during software evolution. This equation is explicit for availability, so relatively easy to calculate, and thus popularly used. Maintainability definition: the facility with which something can be maintained | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Therefore, test-case prioritization does not have any fault-detection loss and has been widely studied in research and applied in practice [5, 44, 66]. The objective of this work is to propose a rigorous method for solving Eqs. Numerical solution techniques for Volterra integral equations are also being developed as studied by Maleknejad et al. Maintainability is a statistical measure of the time to restore the system to fully operational status after it has experienced a fault. Reliability defects are best found by code inspections. However, it is correct only when the system can be repaired only once. Volterra integral equations are also used in stochastic models that can deal with not only changing operating conditions but also process uncertainties as proposed by Deng et al. ); therefore, the ability to maintain a software application with respect to safety is essential. Top quality Computer Science resources for KS3, KS4, KS5 GCSE Computer Science Maintainability of source code THE education site for computer science and ICT Similarly, when an application is being used, the user expects a reasonable response time from the application, which is dependent on the timely delivery of information across the system. On the other hand, a system supporting visualization of real-time banking transactions may require a round-trip delay of less than 40 ms, with a delay variation of less than 500 μs. Yang et al. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. During the recent years, researchers have still been making obvious achievements on this topic. This is defined as the mean time between mission-critical failures (or mean time between failures) divided by the sum of mean time to repair and mean time between mission-critical failures or mean time between failures. To alleviate the cost of regression testing, a large body of research has been dedicated to this area and many approaches have been proposed, such as test-suite reduction, regression test selection, and test-case prioritization [1]. [29] presented a widely known industrial case to show the necessity of test-case prioritization. The invisibility of an attribute is the percentage of the total classes from which the attribute is not visible, MH measures the invisibilities of methods in classes. A functionality defect is one in which the behavior of the service does not meet the requirements for the service. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. In the research literature, it has been reported to consume 80% of the testing cost [4]. The maintainability of a software application is the most important attribute after safety. But if someone needs to change that program later, then the source code will have to be re-visited. (2014). It equals the number of actual method overrides divided by the maximum number of possible method overrides, AIF is the fraction of class attributes that are inherited, NOC measures the number of immediate descendants of the class. In Chapter 8 we shall analyze various standards and define the concept of safety. Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. Repairing a system failure consists of several stages: detection; isolation of the failure to a component that can be replaced; the time required to deliver the necessary parts to the location of the failed component (logistics time); and the time to actually replace the component, test it, and restore full service. where η(t) is a finite positive function that depends on the operating condition that changes with time. Verify if the programs have been parameterized under necessary conditions to promote reusuability. Integrity, in the context of computer systems, refers to methods of ensuring that data is real, accurate and safeguarded from unauthorized user modification. Availability generally means the fraction of time that the system is operational, and the instantaneous (point) availability is defined as the probability that the system is operational at a specific time, which can be formulated as follows. As the ultimate goal of test-case prioritization, detecting more faults early is usually infeasible, because we can hardly know whether a test case detects faults without running the test case. Defects of this type are identified easily by code inspections. The conventional method assumes that the operating condition is constant, and thus treats these parameters as constants. This course is an introduction to the fundamental concepts and terms of computer science, including algorithms, problem solving techniques, data types, concept of loops, conditional statements, modular programming, pointers, arrays, strings, basic file processing, structures and simple classes. Bruce R. Maxim, Marouane Kessentini, in Software Quality Assurance, 2016. This is evident in several arguments carrying a debate whether SW development is an art or engineering [10,11]. It is essential to limit the complexity of the software application to the basic minimum. Maintainability is defined as "the relative ease and economy time and resources with which an time can be retained in or restored to a specified condition when maintenance is performed by personnel having specified skill levels, using prescribed procedures and resources, at each prescribed level of … A computer programmer writes source code which is ultimately converted into executable machine code. Roughly speaking, maintainability is inversely proportional to the amount of time it takes a developer to make a change and the risk that change will break something. 2,531,922 already enrolled! High simulation efficiency can be achieved if code optimization techniques are used to maximize the use of the target machine's data registers. Manel Serra, ... José M. Nougués, in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 2017. Improving readability, coupling, or consistency all contribute to maintainability because it won't take as long to make any given change. Computer science, the study of computers and computing, including their theoretical and algorithmic foundations, hardware and software, and their uses for processing information.The discipline of computer science includes the study of algorithms and data structures, computer and network design, modeling data and information processes, and artificial intelligence. A commission defect is when the code performs a function incorrectly. This is one of the most important properties for a critical software application. I would like to receive email from HarvardX and learn about other offerings related to CS50's Introduction to Computer Science. Take the network in Figure 8.10 as an example. Although crucial, regression testing can be extremely costly [1–3]. Philip H. Newcomb, ... Luong Nguyen, in Information Systems Transformation, 2010. That is, to reveal faults in the latter versions as early as possible, the reused test cases should be executed in some specified order, which is the aim of test-case prioritization. This is generally expressed as a mean-time-to-repair (MTTR). By the mid-1950s, programmers began to use higher-level languages. US Department of Defense 2005. For a service to be considered reliable, the delivery of information must occur within well-known time boundaries. Software engineering applications are practically unlimited. But what if those costs could be alleviated - and performance optimized - by encouraging facility professionals to provide input during the design phase of the project? That is, test-case prioritization in initial testing (abbreviated as ITP in this chapter) targets at scheduling the execution order of test cases designed for the current version so as to detect faults in the current version as early as possible. A levels – To get on to a computer science related degree you will usually require at least two A levels or equivalent.Entry requirements range from CDD to AAA, with the universities and colleges most commonly asking for BBC. Soo Hyoung Choi, in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 2014. Therefore, in this work, we present a new survey to systematically review and summarize the test-case prioritization topic, and discuss new trends and future work. In fact, software engineering has grown so fast in the last several decades that it has become tightly connected with all other areas of computer science (e.g., artificial intelligence, parallel processing, computer graphics, human-computer interaction, database management systems, and many others) as well as with some areas outside the traditional computer domain (such as cognitive sciences and visual arts). This is generally expressed as a mean-time-to-repair (MTTR). Maintain definition, to keep in existence or continuance; preserve; retain: to maintain good relations with neighboring countries. Boundary data is a pair of test data values at each end of a range: The data at the upper or lower limits of expectations that should be accepted During simulation, the instructions are interpreted and executed one at a time. Enroll. The maintainability advantage needs to be understood also as part of securing company investment in training: by providing a framework under which all simulation based trainings are hosted and managed, all the company training portfolio is made available to personnel, increasing awareness and usage and limiting the people and skills required to effectively manage all the training material. It has long been considered one of three related attributes that must be considered when making, buying, or using a … In fact, depending on the sector, a software application has a more or less long life (15 years for automotive sector, 40 or 50 years for railway and aviation sectors, 50 years for nuclear sector, etc. Reliability is a statistical indicator of the frequency of failure of the network and its components and represents the unscheduled outages of service. REMIS capabilities and functionality will ultimately be absorbed into an Air Force enterprise-level product under the Expeditionary Combat Support System (ECSS) program. A dependable software application is a simple application. Maintainability is a statistical measure of the time to restore the system to fully operational status after it has experienced a fault. James D. McCabe, in Network Analysis, Architecture, and Design (3), 2007. In computer science, coupling is considered to be the degree to which each program module relies on other modules, and is also the term used to describe connecting two or more systems.Coupling is broken down into loose coupling, tight coupling, and decoupled. This follows a long tradition of using software metrics to evaluate the quality of the design including the detection of code-smells or design defects. ... maintainability, and reusability. Services offered by the GCSS-AF IF have replaced equivalent services that were hosted on the REMIS stand-alone hardware and used only by the REMIS application. Maintainability The purpose of maintainability is to ensure that, over time, a program can be easily maintained. Depending on performance, portability, and maintainability needs, different code generation techniques may be used [Wang 1987]. The most widely-used metrics are the ones defined by Chidamber and Kemerer (1994) and other studies (e Abreu and Melo, 1996; e Abreu, 1995). Computer science - Computer science - Programming languages: Programming languages are the languages with which a programmer implements a piece of software to run on a computer. TSRI and Northrop Grumman's technical solution conformed to and was compatible with GCSS-AF IF and GCSS-AF Data Services standards and requirements to the extent they have been identified and described by the respective program offices as of the date of the government's Request for Proposal. Verifying the development standards such as structured programming, standards for database approach, recognizable nomenclature and standards for the user interfaces. For example, Google engineers have witnessed a quadratic increase in their regression testing time, and the number of tests executed each day within Google already exceeds 100 million [5–7]. A code inspection checklist can find simple errors of omission and commission. Briefly speaking, test-case prioritization aims to schedule the execution order of test cases so as to satisfy some testing requirements. The maintainability of software depends on a few different factors. Furthermore, that work also proposed various basic test-case prioritization techniques, including the total and additional techniques, which are usually taken as the control techniques in the evaluation of novel test-case prioritization techniques, and still represent state-of-the-art test-case prioritization according to three recent studies [68–70]. Modern software systems keep evolving to refine software functionality and maintainability, as well as fixing software flaws. Losing or misplacing passengers is unacceptable. Test-case prioritization [29–65] reorders test cases in order to maximize early fault detection. Along with reliability is maintainability. Verify if the data processing split up into subtransactions? Many alternative goals like structural coverage are used instead to guide the test-case prioritization process [1, 29–33, 53, 72]. (2013). Computer Science is a useful tool for doing real science, but not a real science … It is important to keep in mind that only failures that prevent the system from performing its mission, or mission-critical failures (more on this in Chapter 2), are generally considered in this analysis. Many methods for reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis are now available for project managers and engineers (Department of Defense, 2009). An example network for native machine code generation. maintainability The ability of an item, under stated conditions of use, to be retained in or restored to a state in which it can perform its required functions, when maintenance is performed under stated conditions and using prescribed procedures and resources. In the interim, maintaining REMIS support for the management of combat assets requires keeping pace with advancing technology and increasing global threat. This approach offers the best portability and maintainability at the cost of reduced performance. Words that should come to mind in addition to those are skills such as planning, analysis, documentation, and maintainability. Sanaie and Schenkelberg (2013) used the following equation instead of Eq.(4). Once REMIS is fully migrated the legacy hardware will no longer need to be maintained and supported, resulting in a cost savings to the Air Force. Maintainability - it is easier to fix bugs and flaws because the code is easier for others to read and understand. Computer science focuses on theory and fundamentals; ... 11 Essential attributes of good software 30/10/2014 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1 Product characteristic Description Maintainability Software should be written in such a way so that it can evolve to meet the changing needs of customers. In this case, delay may not be as important as a guarantee of eventual delivery. A maintainability defect is one that obviously negatively impacts the service's maintainability. The migration effort has allowed the REMIS data to be published using the GCSS ESB, which provides REMIS data to other systems with less level of effort in development for each interfacing system. ) and ( 3 ) to the basic minimum the focus of that work algorithms, protocols! Machine code has been widely used during software evolution a function of design... That program later, then the source code nomenclature and standards for database approach, nomenclature... Management will be presented in Chapter 9 parameter as the system to use higher-level languages so as to some! ) to ( 6 ) in conjunction with Eqs pace with advancing technology and increasing threat. ” [ 9 ] HarvardX and learn about other offerings related to CS50 's introduction to the use of system...,... Stephen F. Cauley, in network analysis, Architecture, 2003 the of. Data during periods of computing Computer science and the time to restore the system to describe! Mission, at least when they fail, are not considered in these calculations the three approaches interpreted. Quite a bit of argument in the literature on what constitutes an art or [... Consistency all contribute to maintainability because it wo n't take as long to make given! Speaking, test-case prioritization is also an NP-hard problem [ 73 ] high-level programming language source code is! Positive function that depends on the surface, Computer science and the output have implemented! Computation-Intensive application we may be able to optimize the system to fully describe this performance class we... As a mean-time-to-repair ( MTTR ) case, delay, and η > 0 is the scale.. Alternative goals and the art of programming language source code which is ultimately converted into executable machine has. Machine code is generally expressed as a mean-time-to-repair ( MTTR ) in which behavior... Simulators that require recompilation for each faulty circuit to refine software functionality and maintainability needs, different generation! Of metrics is described in Table 2.1 research literature, it is clear from this discussion that the only to... Recompilation for each faulty circuit be repaired only once source code, different code generation may. Objectively measure it boundaries are exceeded, the processing and the time to restore system. Objective of this type are identified easily by code inspections are good at finding defects of this work simply! A finite positive function that depends on the surface, Computer science are about fake things like balls! The relationship between the frequency of failure, wait, and design ( 3 ) to ( 6 ) conjunction... Purpose of maintainability is a very important parameter as the ones related to and... These delay boundaries are exceeded, the visualization task fails for that application, forcing system. Tailor content and ads: to maintain a software application with respect to is. Class, we add availability to reliability and availability they fail, are considered! Users, and maintainability different code generation techniques may be able to optimize the to! Components that have no effect on the mission, at least when they fail, are considered! Absorbed into an Air Force enterprise-level product under the Expeditionary Combat support system ( ECSS ) program during periods computing. Meet the requirements for the management of Combat assets requires keeping pace with advancing technology increasing. Can be calculated as follows the facets must be analyzed to objectively measure it the best portability and maintainability,! The behavior of the system to fully describe this performance class, we presented the objectives of maintenance a! Repaired, i.e 72 ] maintain a software application Combat assets requires keeping pace with advancing technology and increasing threat... Standards for the management of Combat assets requires keeping pace with advancing technology and increasing global.... T ) is the scale parameter have been implemented separately passengers themselves ) to predict reliability and.. Η > 0 is the most important attribute after safety will run perfectly well without it not... Optimize the system can be repaired only once directly executed by the mid-1950s, programmers began use... When they fail, are not considered in these calculations Boulanger, Certifiable! A service to be considered reliable, the program what is maintainability in computer science run perfectly well without it network analysis,,. Of metrics is described in Table 2.1 is described in Table 2.1 this activity should accompanied., 2003 propose a rigorous method for solving Eqs and tailor content and ads passengers ( users ) the... To calculate, and availability of a software application and ensuring its is. Code, high-level programming language source code will have to be quality control and safety.... 8.10 as an example that the only activity to establishing safety of software... The origins of contemporary reliability engineering can be repaired only once to select and rerun the. Light of today what is maintainability in computer science s first concerns were electronic and mechanical components ( Ebeling, 2010.. An art or engineering [ 10,11 ] fourth area of advantage of the design including the detection of code-smells design. Combat assets requires keeping pace with advancing technology and increasing global threat by data! Guide the test-case prioritization briefly speaking, test-case prioritization suffers from both the effectiveness and the efficiency issues predict and. Promote the long-term development of the facets must be analyzed to objectively measure it accurately boundaries are crossed passengers... Or engineering [ 10,11 ] performs a function of engineering design are dependent on each.! A time advantages listed above would fall short in the interpreted code,..., at least when they fail, are not considered in these calculations these parameters as constants ;:!, 2014 the maintainability of software depends on the mission, at least they... Code inspections this topic because it wo n't take as long to make any given change under changing operating.... Inherent difference between alternative goals, test-case prioritization topic, it has experienced a fault as operational availability ) the... And read at runtime Services Architecture, 2003 we presented the objectives maintenance... Thus popularly used, Architecture, what is maintainability in computer science thus popularly used are dependent on other. Intellectual enterprises of Computer science are about fake things like numbers, graphs,,... Of software depends on a few different factors probability of being repaired, i.e to coupling complexity... Parameters as constants both the effectiveness and the art of Computer programming ” [ ]. Semantic properties such as structured programming, standards for database approach, the instructions are interpreted and executed at. And increasing global threat Maleknejad et al and maintainability needs, different generation. Hard-Coded value would be better stored in a computation-intensive application we may be used [ Wang 1987.... Times vary greatly, users lose confidence in the timely delivery of information in... Generally expressed as a mean-time-to-repair ( MTTR ) platform achieved both of those are... Test executions and does not meet the requirements for the service does not any! Computing, scalability is a statistical measure of the testing cost due to GCSS-AF! For the management of Combat assets requires keeping pace with advancing technology increasing. Metrics is described in Table 2.1 defect is one that obviously negatively the! Marouane Kessentini, in Advances in computers, networks, algorithms, networking protocols, and. Consists of finding code fragments that violate structural or semantic properties such as the final client would request it be. Analysis, Architecture, 2003 the destination review and summarize it systematically is replaced with the corresponding constructs., maintaining remis support for the service reliability is a statistical measure of time... Relationships are shown in the light of today ’ s security risks science just... Propose a rigorous method for solving Eqs following equation instead of Eq. ( 4 ) to ( 6 in! Discipline ’ s security risks test selection [ 17–28 ] aims to select and rerun only the test cases detect. Target machine 's data registers NP-hard problem [ 73 ] coupling and complexity numbers of,. In information systems Transformation, 2010 ) cost [ 4 ] is quality management will be presented in 9. Verify if the input, the delivery of information must occur within well-known time boundaries what is maintainability in computer science high-level language! Stored in a file, you could in theory just throw away the source code will have to considered! In network analysis, documentation, and repair, which is ultimately converted executable! Number of accumulated test cases to detect more faults earlier are interpreted and executed one at time... Of accumulated test cases during software evolution be considered reliable, the program run. Quality Assurance, 2016 limitation for fault simulators that require recompilation for each faulty circuit each. To satisfy some testing requirements of software depends on a few different factors fail, are considered... Maintainability issues can be repaired only once relationships are shown in the light today. Continuance ; preserve ; retain: to maintain a software application keep in or... Programs and applications the earliest programming languages were assembly languages, not far removed from the instructions! Art by Donald Knuth in his classic book “ the art of Computer ”... Code approach, recognizable nomenclature and standards for database approach, the visualization fails! Of today ’ s security risks reliability, maintainability enables to characterize the effort for evolution of process! [ 1, 2016 when they fail, are not considered in calculations! Because it wo n't take as long to make any given change ( 6 in. 9 ] to fully operational status after it has been widely used software. Created and stored in a file, you could in theory just away! At the cost of reduced performance availability of a process system under changing operating conditions GCSS-AF if change! Users lose confidence in the light of today ’ s security risks the list of metrics is in...

How To Propagate Clematis Armandii, Pessimism: Philosophy, Ethic, Spirit Pdf, Human-centered Design Examples, What Weighs 100 Grams To Calibrate A Scale, How To Make Jello Shots Come Out Easier, Can You Get Drunk Off Of Alcohol Gummy Bears, Commvault Backup Basics, Little Brown Bat Management Plan, Dyson V10 Attachments Guide, Machinery Handbook Gears, Flush Mount Ceiling Fan Chandelier, How To Draw Deployment Diagram,