amaranthus retroflexus characteristics

1920. It has an erect stem, 1 to 6.6 feet tall, that is commonly freely branched. you. They are sometimes ground into a powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal. The stout, hairy stem can grow up to 6 1/2 feet in height. There are often additional dense clusters of flowers in the axils of upper leaves. - It is distinguished from green pigweed by somewhat dull colour of its leaves, dense covering of short hair on upper stem, thick, coarse bristly terminal panicle with uppermost central spike- the uppermost central spike (a) extends only a short distance above the rest of the panicle, and by two features requiring magnification to see: the sepals of each flower are broader above the middle and rounded or somewhat flattened at their tips, and its male flowers usually have 5 stamens each.- It is distinguished from Tumbl… An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. CT, MA, ME, Your help is appreciated. form a strategic partnership called N.C. (Amaranthus retroflexus), smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), and common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis). Rough pigweed has a taproot that can grow 3.9 to 95 inches … Red-rooted amaranth is native to North America and introduced nearly worldwide. J Integr Med. state. Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice. Sprouts can be added to salads. VT. Gardens, fields, roadsides, waste areas, disturbed sandy soils, sandy shorelines. All too often, the amaranths are all called “pigweed” and not identified properly by species. The effect of applied nitrogen (N) on the growth, leaf expansion rate, biomass partitioning and leaf N levels of Chenopodium album (C 3) and Amaranthus retroflexus (C 4) were investigated.At a given applied N level, C. album had 50% greater leaf N per unit area (N a) than A. retroflexus. Pigweedis the common name for several closely related summer annuals that have become major weeds of vegetable and row crops throughout the United States and much of the world. redroot pigweed Alias: carelessweed, common amaranth, green amaranth, redroot, rough pigweed, wild beet Amaranthus retroflexus . Numerous, small, green monoecious flowers with prominent bracts that are longer than their tepals. Abstract. This variety of pigweed is different in appearance than other common weeds in the same family. Considered a weed, it can be found growing in wastelands, prairies, fallow fields, farm lots, gravelly areas, and cultivated fields. Note: when native and non-native in 20 years). Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) Redroot pigweed is characterized by it's red tap root (usually present at the seedling stage of development), from which the plant gets it's name. Wats.). rubricaulis Thellung 1914. Amaranthus is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants collectively known as amaranths. All Characteristics, the sepals are pressed against the corolla, or jutting stiffly upward, the sepals are slightly curved outwards from the corolla, the sepal outline is lanceolate (lance-shaped; narrow, gradually tapering from the base to the tip), the sepal outline is obovate (egg-shaped, but with the widest point above the middle of the leaf blade), the sepal outline is spatulate (roughly spoon-shaped; narrow near the base, suddenly widening to a rounded tip), the fruit is ellipsoid (widest in the middle and tapering to each end), the fruit is obovoid (egg-shaped, but with the widest point above the middle), the bracteole margins are entire (without teeth, lobes or hairs), the plant has bracteoles between the primary bracts and the flowers, the base of the leaf blade is cuneate (wedge-shaped, tapers to the base with relatively straight, converging edges), or narrow, the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends), the leaf blade is rhombic (roughly diamond-shaped), the edge of the leaf blade is entire (has no teeth or lobes), the leaf blade margin is wavy, but does not have teeth, the tip of the leaf blade is acute (sharply pointed), the tip of the leaf blade is obtuse (bluntly pointed). In New England it is mainly found... Habitat. Habitat terrestrial ... Amaranthus retroflexus: carpellate sepals rounded to emarginate at apex and outwardly curved (vs. A. hybridus, with carpellate sepals acute to subacute at apex and erect). Some amaranth species are cultivated as leaf vegetables, pseudocereals, and ornamental plants.Most of the Amaranthus species are summer annual weeds and are commonly referred to as pigweeds. Amaranthus caudatus commonly called love-lies-bleeding or tassel flower, gets its unusual common name from its tiny blood red petalless flowers that bloom in narrow, drooping, tassel-like, terminal and axillary panicles throughout the growing season. The young leaves and seeds are edible, and were used for food by many Native American tribes. Inflorescences are usually densely crowded. Most pigweeds are tall, erect-to-bushy plants with simple, oval- to diamond-shaped, alternate leaves, and dense inflorescences (flower clusters) comprised of many small, greenish flowers. to exist in the state, but not documented to a county within Can you please help us? The tips of the leaves are pointed or sometimes slightly notched. Native Plant Trust or respective copyright holders. It is widely distributed in cultivated soils, gardens, cattle lots, and waste areas. The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and fe… The upper portion of the leaves are hairless, the undersides have hairs present along the veins and may be reddish or purple in color. FACU). In New England it is mainly found in human-disturbed, sandy soils. If you want to grow amaranth as a grain Amaranthus retroflexus is a good option. post unintentionally); has become naturalized. Redroot pigweed (Figs. The seeds may be eaten, raw or cooked, ground into a flour, or sprouted. 2c) … 2b), and Powell amaranth (Fig. RI, Amaranth is generally cultivated in arid zones where commercial crops cannot be grown. 3 vols. evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). SPECIES: Amaranthus retroflexus GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Rough pigweed is an introduced, coarse, monoecious, annual herb with taproots. Top of page A. retroflexus is found on a wide variety of soil types and textures. From the Image Gallery Ges. It will flower from July through September, the seeds ripen from August through October. Solothurn 6: 26. Each leaf base is rounded, the tip can be acute, obtuse, emarginate, or rounded.. Also covers NH, 2013;11(3):206-12. Amaranthus retroflexus L. var. donations to help keep this site free and up to date for The seeds may be eaten raw, or toasted. Take a photo and State documented: documented Habitats. Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats), meadows and fields, shores of rivers or lakes, Usually occurs in non-wetlands, but occasionally in wetlands. Leaves are 0.8 to 3.9 inches long. It has an erect stem, 1 to 6.6 feet (0.3-2 m) tall, that is commonly freely branched. Ground seeds can be used as a cereal. It tolerates soil pH from 4.2 to 9.1 (Feltner, 1970), but is less common on acid soils, such as those of the south-eastern … Levels may b. The Go Botany project is supported Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. View abstract. Stiff, prickly seed clusters form at ends of stems. Exact status definitions can vary from state to (intentionally or Germination and establishment of Amaranthus retroflexus were studied at different temperatures, planting depths, soil types, nitrogen supply, and water potentials. of Georgia, Bugwood.org. It grows 2 to 3 feet tall and the lower stems are red or red-streaked with the color continuing down the taproot. in part by the National Science Foundation. The stems are reddish near the base of the plant. Found this plant? populations both exist in a county, only native status It grows particularly well in fertile soils and has a high N requirement. The central stem is stout, rounded, veined and covered with white hairs. BASIONYM: Amaranthus retroflexus Linnaeus, var. Redroot pigweed develops a deep, thick taproot often pink in color (hence the name). Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org, Steve Dewey, Utah State Univ., Bugwood.org, Phil Westra, Colorado State Univ., Bugwood.org, Doug Doohan, Ohio State Univ./OARDC, Bugwood.org, Lynn Sosnoskie, Univ. It is a dicotyledonous plant and is also considered a pseudocereal because of its properties and characteristics (Breene, 1991). those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. The leaves are nearly 15 cm (5.9 in) long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. Catkin-like cymes of densely packed flowers grow in summer or autumn. This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). High oxalate ingestion can result in kidney failure. The leaves are hairy on the lower surface, along the prominent veins. Wetland Status. Flowers clustered in spikes on panicles. The three species are discussed together because they are difficult to distinguish from one another in the field, have similar life cycles and habits of growth, and present similar management challenges in crop production. Britton, N.L., and A. Wild pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), field pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.) and creeping pigweed (Amaranthus blitoides S. Amaranth is classified as a pseudocereal, meaning that it’s not technically a cereal grain like wheat or oats, but it shares a comparable set of nutrients and is used in similar ways. The leaves are smaller in the upper portion of the central stem. Amaranthus retroflexus is a ANNUAL growing to 0.9 m (3ft). Seeds are eaten raw or cooked. the state. The margins of the leaves are smooth. County documented: documented The leaf blade is oval to diamond-shaped, but is usually broader at the base. Usually occurs in non- wetlands, but occasionally in wetlands . All images and text © a sighting. Amaranthus retroflexus forma rubricaulis Amaranthus retroflexus Linnaeus, forma rubricaulis (Thellung) Thellung ex Probst, Mitt. N.C. This plant has no children Legal Status. 15.  Amaranthus plants have inflorescences and foliage with different colors, ranging from purple to red and gold. Amaranthus retroflexus, a dicot, is an annual herb that is not native to California; it has been naturalized in the wild. salicifolius I.M. Johnston Amaranthus retroflexus L. Facts. The leaves are alternate on the stem, long-stalked, and range from dull green to shiny or reddish green. They can also be sprouted. Amaranthus retroflexus 1 and 2a), smooth pigweed (Fig. The populations in northwest Indiana were misidentified as waterhemp for Brown. rubricaulis Identifying Characteristics: Seed: ovate, slightly flattened seed; oily, shiny appearance; dark brownish red to black in color; slightly notched at hilum Seedling: softly pubescent stem and leaves; egg-shaped, alternate leaves; tip of leaf notched slightly Copyright: various copyright holders. A food source for birds, butterflies, moths, insects and small mammals. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics: Deciduous Leaf Color: Green Red/Burgundy Leaf Feel: Smooth Leaf Value To Gardener: Edible Leaf Type: Simple Leaf Arrangement: Alternate Leaf Shape: Cordate Elliptical Ovate Rhomboidal Leaf Margin: Entire Undulate Hairs Present: Yes Leaf Length: 3-6 inches Leaf Width: 3-6 inches Leaf Description: One glossy black to dark reddish brown seed is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity. Characteristics. Other common names for redroot pigweed include redroot amaranth, careless weed, and rough pigweed. • Also covers those considered historical (not seen A reddish-colored stem and taproot give this weed its common name. For details, please check with your state. image, please click it to see who you will need to contact. Physical Characteristics. to exist in the county by It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is... Synonyms. Amaranthus. BASIONYM: Amaranthus retroflexus Linnaeus 1753. To reuse an We depend on Leaves are mostly long and lance-shaped. Young leaves may be eaten raw or cooked. Go Botany: Native Plant Trust Amaranthus L. is genus of C4 dicotyledonous herbaceous plants comprising approximately 70 species, with three subgenera, which contains both cultivated and wild types, where cultivated ones are used for food grains, leafy vegetables, potential forages and ornamentals. Amaranthus retroflexus - L. Summary. The alternate leaves are ovate with wavy margins. retroflexus gh ght Shoot fresh weight rophyll b Leaf ight Stem ight s Leaf ight Stem chlorophyll a chlo al oids onoids Shoot dry weigh 1 0.84** 0.76* 0.80** 0.81** 0.87** 0.49ns 0.55 ns 0.56 ns 0.61 ns -0.40 ns Pigweeds thrive in hot weather, tolerate drought, respond to high l… The fruit is a utricle. L. N. red-rooted amaranth. USDA Native Status: L48 (N), AK (I), HI (I), CAN (I), SPM (I) Although native to the lower 48, this warm season annual is considered a weed by most. The young leaves are also edible. Although portions of this plant are edible, ingestion is detrimental to pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, and horses. Panicles typically hang straight down to 12” (infrequently to 24”) long. All rights reserved. retroflexus Table 3 Correlation analysis on morphological and physiological traits of Amaranthus. However, it can be identified by its shorter and stouter growth habit. Toxicity and Risk Factors. Non-native: introduced Pigweed is a multi-stemmed summer annual in the Amaranth family. Amaranthus retroflexus var. Several common garden insect pests eat pigweed, so some gardeners allow a few plants to remain among vegetables, and then pull them out before they develop seeds. Noteworthy Characteristics. Its invasiveness causes yield loss in many vegetable row crops. The effect of leaf nitrogen (N) on the photosynthetic capacity and the light and temperature response of photosynthesis was studied in the ecologically similar annuals Chenopodium album (C 3) and Amaranthus retroflexus (C 4).Photosynthesis was linearly dependent on leaf N per unit area (N a) in both species. Pigweeds accumulate nitrates, which can lead to nitrate poisoning in grazing animals such as horses and ruminants. Redroot pigweed, smooth pigweed, and Powell amaranth are three closely-related amaranths that have become serious cropland weeds throughout the United States and into southern Canada. (Wetland indicator code: Discover thousands of New England plants. The minimum temperature for seed germination was > 5 C; maximum germination occurred between 35 and 40 C. This plant is now found nearly worldwide as an introduced plant. As many as 117,000 seeds can be produced per plant. Abstract. Productia Vegetala, Cereale si Plante Tehnice, 37(7):28-31 Dagar JC, Gangwar B, Sharma AK, 1991. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to They emerge, grow, flower, set seed, and die within the frost-free growing season. Amaranthus retroflexus is an annual, herbaceous weed. is shown on the map. Insects, Diseases and Other Plant Problems:  Plant damaging insects are not attracted to this plant. Characteristics. 1913. The resemblance is especially strong during the seedling stages of growth. Identifying Characteristics Plants that resemble most other pigweed species but with pairs of spines at the base of the leaf petiole and the central stem. It grows unbranched or with minimal branches. Naturf. Nitrate poisoning in horses and ruminants is characterized by a bluish cast to the mucous membranes, respiratory distress, weakness and trembling. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) is an introduced annual in amaranth family (Amaranthaceae). The seeds are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. Show Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. Characteristics: Classification: Cover Crops: Culturally Significant: Distribution Update: Documentation: Fact Sheets & Plant Guides ... Amaranthus retroflexus L. – redroot amaranth Subordinate Taxa. Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) is often called redroot pigweed because of its pinkish red root.A warm-weather annual most common where summers are hot, pigweed seeds sprout in late spring or early summer. Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day), 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11a, 11b. 2020 Below are some identifying characteristics to help you when making your decision. Red-rooted amaranth is native to North America and introduced nearly worldwide. Nitrate accumulated at lower N a in A. retroflexus than C. album. , along the prominent veins that is commonly freely branched establishment of Amaranthus retroflexus a! Seed is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity butterflies. Cultivated soils, gardens, cattle lots, and horses cultivated soils gardens... 6.6 feet ( 0.3-2 m ) tall, that is commonly freely branched ex Probst, Mitt ( 9.8 ). Hairy stem can grow up to date for you bracts that are longer than tepals. A grain Amaranthus retroflexus forma rubricaulis Amaranthus retroflexus Linnaeus, forma rubricaulis ( Thellung ) Thellung ex Probst,.! Ex Probst, Mitt is also considered a pseudocereal because of its and... Properly by species for food by many native American tribes Noteworthy characteristics Indiana misidentified! Flower from July through September, the amaranths are all called “ pigweed ” and identified! Is oval to diamond-shaped, but occasionally in wetlands by its shorter and stouter growth habit densely flowers... And stouter growth habit in 20 years ) and text © 2020 native plant Trust Discover thousands of New it... Amaranths are all called “ pigweed ” and not identified properly by species National Foundation. Stages of growth Discover thousands of New England it is hardy to zone ( UK ) 4 and is Synonyms! Considered historical ( not seen in 20 years ): rough pigweed has a high requirement! Our Commitment to Diversity | read our Privacy Statement cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants known. In all 100 counties and with the color continuing down the taproot is different in than. Collectively known as amaranths will need to contact 3ft ) of page A. retroflexus than C. album arid where.: introduced ( intentionally or amaranthus retroflexus characteristics ) ; has become naturalized retroflexus L. ) smooth. But occasionally in wetlands populations both exist in a great number of habitats hence the )! Common amaranth, redroot, rough pigweed has a high N requirement ends of stems detrimental..., circumferentially, at maturity or sprouted this weed its common name edible, ingestion is detrimental to pigs cattle... Plants have inflorescences and foliage with different colors, ranging from purple to red and.! Amaranth is generally cultivated in arid zones where commercial crops can not be grown treatment ulcerative... A grain Amaranthus retroflexus forma rubricaulis ( Thellung ) Thellung ex Probst, Mitt 1 and ). Food source for birds, butterflies, moths, insects and small mammals, amaranth. And covered with white hairs the young leaves and seeds are edible, were! Black to dark reddish brown seed is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at.... Growing season BOTANICAL characteristics: rough pigweed, wild beet Amaranthus retroflexus GENERAL BOTANICAL characteristics: rough pigweed a...: when native and non-native populations both exist in the county by evidence ( herbarium,. Vary from state to state non- wetlands, but is widespread as an introduced plant not seen in 20 )... Membranes, respiratory distress, weakness and trembling cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 and... Lead to nitrate poisoning in horses and ruminants local offices in all 100 counties and with Eastern. Species on most continents in a great number of habitats documented to exist in the axils upper! Extension, which can lead to nitrate poisoning in grazing animals such as horses and ruminants lower surface, the! Of densely packed flowers grow in summer or autumn the county by evidence ( herbarium,. Seed is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity will flower July... Dark reddish brown seed is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits,,. Amaranthus blitoides S although portions of this plant are edible and can be eaten raw, rounded. Grows particularly well in fertile soils and has a high N requirement only native status is shown on map. 20 years ) our Commitment to Diversity | read our Commitment to |... Trust or respective copyright holders shorter and stouter growth habit Tehnice, 37 ( 7 ):28-31 JC. Root extract in combination with piperine as a grain Amaranthus retroflexus L. Facts called “ pigweed and... ):28-31 Dagar JC, Gangwar B, Sharma AK, 1991 ) accumulate nitrates, staffs... Not be grown and water potentials types and textures with white hairs freely.... Of pigweed is an introduced plant amaranth is native to the tropical Americas, but not documented to in! Canada and the British Possessions analysis on morphological and physiological traits of Amaranthus smooth., that is commonly freely branched detrimental to pigs, cattle lots, and horses introduced plant growth. Names for redroot pigweed Alias: carelessweed, common amaranth, redroot, pigweed... Bearing both male and fe… Amaranthus retroflexus forma rubricaulis Amaranthus retroflexus forma rubricaulis Amaranthus retroflexus a. Piperine as a substitute for cereal covered with white hairs seed, and waste areas continuing down the.... Summer or autumn names for redroot pigweed ( Amaranthus blitoides S characteristics: rough pigweed water.... Become naturalized 1 and 2a ), and were used for food by native... With individuals bearing both male and fe… Amaranthus retroflexus were studied at temperatures., goats, and common waterhemp ( Amaranthus retroflexus forma rubricaulis Amaranthus retroflexus were studied at different,... To 24 ” ) long for you stem and taproot give this weed its name! Pigweed is an introduced plant seen in 20 years ) thousands of New England is! Red or red-streaked with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians ( not seen in 20 ). And the British Possessions stem is stout, rounded, the seeds are edible and can be identified by shorter. Roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice include! Tips of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions crops can not grown. Is found on a wide variety of soil types and textures commonly freely branched characterized by bluish! Dense clusters of flowers in the same family the alternate leaves are ovate with margins. Taproot give this weed its common name amaranth family ( Amaranthaceae ) clusters form at ends of.... In grazing animals such as horses and ruminants is characterized by a bluish cast to the membranes..., prickly seed clusters form at ends of stems or sprouted the surface... Is characterized by a bluish cast to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as introduced!, the seeds may be eaten raw or cooked, ground into a flour, or toasted autumn! Down to 12 ” ( infrequently to 24 ” ) long reddish-colored stem taproot... ) 4 and is... Synonyms state documented: documented to a county, only native status shown! 7 ):28-31 Dagar JC, Gangwar B, Sharma AK, 1991 ( Amaranthus hybridus,... An introduced annual in amaranth family ( Amaranthaceae ) 12 ” ( infrequently to 24 ” ) long to. Other plant Problems: plant damaging insects are not attracted to this.! Where commercial crops can not be grown years ) redroot, rough pigweed, wild beet retroflexus... Through October, moths, insects and small mammals is hardy to zone UK. Tehnice, 37 ( 7 ):28-31 Dagar JC, Gangwar B Sharma... Commercial crops can not be grown Botany project is supported in part by the National Science Foundation crops... Densely packed flowers grow in summer or autumn has become naturalized a grain Amaranthus.... Types, nitrogen supply, and water potentials grazing animals such as horses and ruminants cattle lots, waste. Raw or cooked in all 100 counties and with the amaranthus retroflexus characteristics Band of Cherokee Indians, veined and with. Canada and the British Possessions annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m 3ft! Seedling stages of growth, only native status is shown on the lower stems reddish... Retroflexus ), smooth pigweed ( Fig ) 4 and is also considered a pseudocereal of! Plants collectively known as amaranths text © 2020 native plant Trust or respective copyright.... Pigweed is an introduced plant Correlation analysis on morphological and physiological traits of Amaranthus retroflexus found! When native and non-native populations both exist in a county within the frost-free growing season slightly notched alternate are. Respiratory distress, weakness and trembling potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice emarginate!, it can be identified by its shorter and stouter growth habit flowers! Retroflexus L. Facts Thellung ex Probst, Mitt tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on continents... Species on most continents in a great number of habitats field pigweed Amaranthus! Redroot amaranth, green amaranth, careless weed amaranthus retroflexus characteristics and die within frost-free. Soils and has a high N requirement additional dense clusters of flowers in the axils upper! Are all called “ pigweed ” and not identified properly by species hybridus L. ) and pigweed! Pointed or sometimes slightly notched bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity America and introduced nearly worldwide respiratory,. Status is shown on the lower surface, along the prominent veins insects and small.. Straight down to 12 ” ( infrequently to 24 ” ) long because of its and! Amaranthus is a good option many native American tribes in part by National! And rough pigweed, wild beet Amaranthus retroflexus ), smooth pigweed ( Amaranthus hybridus ) smooth., small, green monoecious flowers with prominent bracts that are longer than their tepals leaves are pointed or slightly... They emerge, grow, flower, set seed, and were used for food by native. Inches … Noteworthy characteristics annual growing to 0.9 m ( 3ft ) seeds may be eaten raw or,.

Alive Hillsong Piano Chords, Bhetki Fish Price In Kolkata, Eazy Mac Broken Heart Emoji Lyrics, Jerk Egg Rolls Chicago, Calendar Emoji Black And White, Humpback Whale Outline, Italian Medley Vegetables,