cardamom farming in nepal

He is the team leader of the FATE project under which this research is conducted. Previous findings suggest farmers are highly likely to cultivate cash crops when international prices rise (Coello, 2008). h�bbd`b`ngb`�cb`\ ����ٞ (:� Large cardamom farming in changing climatic and socioeconomic conditions in the Sikkim Himalayas (ICIMOD Working paper). Study participants also reported, particularly in the focus group discussions, that reviving cardamom farming was difficult for poorer households because cardamom takes time to mature before bearing fruit, like some other cash crops (Achterbosch, van Berkum, & Meijerink, 2014). And it calls for an intervention by national- and district-level officials and other concerned parties to strengthen the cooperatives, which would be a process of institutional innovation. By continuing to browse These districts are the major producers of cardamom as well. Community-level institutions are essential to smooth service delivery and have the best potential to strengthen farmers’ capacity through extension services and provision of agricultural inputs (Salau, Onuk, & Ibrahim, 2012). For 15 respondents, this amounted to total loss of their centuries-old cardamom farms. During crises in African countries including Uganda, Nigeria, Ghana, and Ethiopia, farmers have adopted measures such as diversifying incomes, performing off-farm labor, eating fewer meals, and selling assets (see Codjoe, Ocansey, Boateng, & Ofori, 2013; Ogalleh, Vogl, Eitzinger, & Hauser, 2012; Okonya, Syndikus, & Kroschel, 2013; Oluwatusin, 2014; Oyekale & Oladele, 2012; Tesso, Emana, & Mengistu, 2012). This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. The institutional arrangements and channels for addressing crop disease, as well as policy interventions at the local and national levels. It was conducted in only one district, and thus did not address the issues of other districts in Nepal’s eastern hills that also produce cardamom. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. In addition, lack of roads to transfer products to market has put farmers’ livelihoods at risk. (, Tucker, C. M., Eakin, H., Castellanos, E. J. Due to the dearth of documentation on crop disease and its impact, primary data were collected for this study. According to Von Thunen’s theory, infrastructure is essential to the expansion of agricultural markets (Peet, 2010). Login failed. However, the revival process is ongoing, and many farmers reported that cardamom production for export was the only means to improve their livelihoods. Likewise, a municipality is a single administrative unit governed by a mayor with full authority given by the national laws. In this study, it was used to explore the gap between farmers’ efforts to cope with cardamom disease and the institutional support for those efforts. A focus group participant stated. Elderly people reported they were distressed to see their centuries-old farm disappear. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. Strategies varied by household circumstances (size of landholding, alternative income sources, and access to supporting institutions). Farmers have tried to commercialize their products but have failed due to weak or absent market channels. This calls for institutional innovation at the micro level. Her guidance during this period was great motivation to push through this work. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. A few respondents were both cardamom producers and teachers in public schools. Small cardamom is well grown in areas where annual rainfall of 1,500 mm to 4,000 mm is received. Men and young people persevered to revive their farms, despite failures. The VDCs in the north, including Chamaita, Pyang, and Naya Bazar, experience snowfall during winter. Most of us are unaware of the roads and location of the institutions . Large Cardamom Production in Ilam, 2006-2014. Traditionally, large cardamom has grown wild in these hills, in soil considered unfit for cultivating food crops. Government schools have poor infrastructure, insufficient facilities, and weak teaching quality compared with private schools (Pherali, Smith, & Vaux, 2011). Moreover, local institutions are beneficial in extracting context-based information including challenges faced by farmers and solutions adopted to confront the challenges (Barrett et al., 2012; Ekboir, 2012; IICA, 2014). (, Coulibaly, J., Gbetibouo, G., Kundhlande, G., Sileshi, G., Beedy, T. (, Diao, X., Thurlow, J., Benin, S., Fan, S. It can give farmers time to prepare alternative measures at a reasonable pace without being distressed. The price of cardamom has doubled this year compared to its price last year. A VDC is the lower administrative unit and a decentralized body run by the VDC Secretary, appointed and governed by the central government. However, respondents also reported huge losses of their cardamom crops due to disease, which has had an adverse impact on their livelihoods. The secretaries of Chamaita and Naya Bazar VDCs were unavailable during the fieldwork. (, Partap, U., Sharma, G., Gurung, M. B., Chhetri, N., Sharma, E. (, Rakib, M. A., Rahman, A., Akter, M. S., Bhuiyan, M. A. H. (, Rodenburg, J., Schut, M., Demont, M., Klerkx, L., Gbèhounou, G., Oude Lansink, A., . Tag: Cardamom Farming In Nepal. Cooper et al. The focus group discussions revealed that households with larger landholdings were equally distressed about losing their cardamom farms; however, they were less vulnerable. We have been replacing our old species like Ramsai and Golsai with new species such as Bharlang, which comes from Sikkim, and Salakpurey, which comes from Jirmale VDC. Eight focus group discussions were conducted—two in each study area, with men and women engaged in cardamom farming, ranging in age from 19 to 70 years—to validate the information attained from the in-depth interviews. Nepal is the world’s largest producer of the crop while the Taplejung district contributes a 30%–40% share in Nepal’s total production. Participants reported that, before the onset of cardamom disease, the crop had been their major source of income. Previous studies in the global context report similar coping strategies during crop failure (Ogalleh et al., 2012; Oyekale & Oladele, 2012; Shuaibu, Akpoko, & Umar, 2014). (. Sharing links are not available for this article. Large cardamom production has declined in recent decades due to viruses, including chirke (mosaic streak) and furkey (bushy dwarf), and fungi (SNV, 2008). . 232 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[227 7]/Info 226 0 R/Length 36/Prev 1214728/Root 228 0 R/Size 234/Type/XRef/W[1 2 0]>>stream ٙ��4γL�ht�����!R�"�[email protected]�A�! One female respondent from an indigenous ethnic group stated. Different factors affected the change in agriculture in general and high-value agriculture in particular in relation to participation of women. Ilam, is well known for its fertile soil and variety of agricultural production (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2011). We [families] have to divide our work between husband and wife . Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (. Studies in Nepal have focused less on coping strategies and more on crop failure due to disease and climate change and production decline (see Bhasin, 2011; Bhattarai et al., 2013; Chapagain et al., 2014; Khadka, 2011; Singh & Pothula, 2013; Stoep et al., 2010). Although awareness has been raised and training has been provided, alternatives have not been thoroughly assessed. q`qc���F�;S��P�*P,��!P�W�&�&���[���X2#;�l ɐ�� ���& B� � !���� `,U3f7if �[>�_�i��^ � L/��19pO�z°�ffidC���L��x�fj���� � m� A mixed group of men (14) and women (17) producing cardamom and other crops were reached. A total of 31 in-depth interviews were conducted, using a semistructured checklist, based on availability of cardamom farmers in each VDC. The role of each is detailed in Table 7. The cardamom sector lacks technical research. Local Government Institutions Supporting Cardamom Farmers. Other private to public entities have also collaborated on agricultural research and technological support. Some commented that farmers were unwilling to admit that crop patterns have changed due to factors such as climate change. In in-depth interviews, respondents revealed that they thought this would kill the diseases permanently, but it was ineffective, and production continued to decline. (, Upreti, B. R., K. C., S., Mallett, R., Babajanian, B. Including members of different generations provided insights on farming technique ranging from indigenous to modern, changes in livelihoods due to disease infestation in cardamom farms, coping strategies, and respondents’ views on institutional intervention. Naya Bazar, in northeastern Ilam, has an area of 21.51 km2 and elevation ranging from 600 to 2,200 m. Naya Bazar has 1,090 households with 4,743 people. A majority of farmers reported cardamom growing techniques being passed down through their families, describing it as “learning by seeing and doing.” Some acquired training from local institutions. “Innovation,” in this article, refers to a systematic process of interaction between institutions, policies, and stakeholders to produce new processes of social and economic transformation (Edquist, 1997; Lundvall, 1992). Nepal’s agriculture in general and cash crops in particular is in the process of transition from self-employed subsistence farming to wage-labor based high-value agriculture like cardamom and ginger. %PDF-1.7 %���� In Nepal, rural people with a decent income tend to send their children to school in urban areas for a better education. Hence, institutional guidance and innovation are crucial to lower farmers’ vulnerability. Even so, they reported that cardamom farming had been their traditional primary occupation. This photo gallery emerged during the fieldwork in East Nepal conducted for my PhD thesis “Commercialisation and the ‘good life'” between September and December 2018. Modern Farm Equipment in Agriculture. However, production is not the same every year, which creates an adverse impact on farmers’ livelihoods (Achterbosch et al., 2014). The recorded interviews were transcribed in Nepali and then translated into English. The hilly regions of Nepal are prone to disasters and shocks, and more research is needed on coping mechanisms in these regions. In Nepal’s eastern districts, Sikkim or western Bhutan, the people’s livelihoods are similar, they farm more or less the same crops, depend on eco-tourism, and they are all impacted by climate change. For example, in Pyang, farmers produced ground apples or yam like fruits with taste of apples, cauliflowers, and other vegetables. Other researchers have pointed out the need for sound policies and institutions to protect crops during crisis (Sharma, Sharma, & Sharma, 2009), and have argued (Singh & Pothula, 2013) that, despite policies on cardamom improvement, farmers still face problems because of their rural orientation and limited knowledge about policies due to weak institutional capacity. This study investigated farmers’ strategies for coping with disease in large cardamom in eastern Nepal, which has undergone a tremendous decline in production. Acknowledgement I am very much thankful to my thesis supervisor Eun Kyung Park for her continuous support to accomplish this research study. Other studies have shown that disease in cash crops may increase hunger, decrease income, and make smallholder farmers vulnerable (FEWS NET, 2013; Klasen et al., 2013; Ogalleh et al., 2012; Oyekale & Oladele, 2012). Beekman and Meijerink (2010) reveal two risk management strategies: self-help mechanisms (such as diversifying crops, selling livestock, and seeking other jobs) and reaching out to other parties, such as government or private institutions, for assistance. The VDC, also lower in population than the municipality, has to abide by the central government’s rules, while the municipality can have their own rules. Stakeholder interaction mapping. The political economy analysis assesses the link between “structure and agency” to understand the interaction mechanism between the two parties (Harris, McCord, & K. C., 2013, p. 5). The main aim of these interviews was to understand the origin of the disease on cardamom farms, its impact on the lives of farmers, and the coping strategies they adopted. One recent study found differences in coping strategies among farmers in far-west Nepal depending on their income levels: Poorer farmer families engaged in wage labor (by both adults and children) and sold livestock, while wealthier farmers relied on savings and stored grains (Gentle & Maraseni, 2012). Nepal is also famous for orthodox tea, large cardamom, turmeric and zinger too. The Political Economy of Cardamom Farming in Eastern Nepal: Crop Disease, Coping Strategies, and Institutional Innovation,,, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, 2012, Stanley, Chandrasekaran, Preetha, Kuttalam, & Sheeba, 2014, Ministry of Agriculture and Development [MoAD], 2014b, “Farmers Worried Due to Failing Cardamom Production,” 2014, Partap, Sharma, Gurung, Chhetri, & Sharma, 2014, Stoep, Pokharel, Rajbhandari, & Shrestha, 2010, National Research Programme for Plantation Development, 2012, SNV Netherlands Development Organization [SNV], 2008, Bhattarai, Deka, Chhetri, Harsha, & Gupta, 2013, Coulibaly, Gbetibouo, Kundhlande, Sileshi, & Beedy, 2015, Famine Early Warning Systems Network [FEWS NET], 2013, Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture [IICA], 2014, Chhetri, Chaudhary, Tiwari, & Yadav, 2011, Wilcock, Elliott, Hudson, Parkyn, & Quinn, 2008, Achterbosch, van Berkum, & Meijerink, 2014, Kumari, Thiruchelvam, Dissanayake, & Lasantha, 2010, Upreti, K. C., Mallett, & Babajanian, 2012, Schut, van Paassen, Leeuwis, & Klerkx, 2014, Babu, Glendenning, Asenso-Okyere, & Govindarajan, 2012,,,,, Figure 2. Lack of production is occurring not only in cardamom but also in other crops, such as lime (Munakarmi et al., 2014) and maize (Govind et al., 2015), in eastern Nepal. Subsistence and commercial crops grown in the study areas, including cardamom, are summarized in Table 2. Each focus group had six people. In contrast, this study focuses on farmers’ strategies for coping with crop loss, in particular, in the case of large cardamom. (h�p��H�Oh� @C��@��|� ��W߿�`1?`}b��V1��p�a��E����U����0q������������3='7/��W I)i�oj��Z�:�f��V�6�.�n��^�A�!�a� ����S~���������7465�������GFg����WVw��{��G�'W�7�w��ǧ��@�/�*�_��aaa`��� The authors would like to acknowledge the entire Feminization of Agriculture, Transition and Rural Employment (FATE) team for their direct and indirect support. Table 7. The largest ethnic group in these VDCs is the Rai, followed by the Tamang, Gurung, Brahmin, Chhetri, Dalit, and Sherpa. Chamaita did not have a cooperative. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. x���eTd_�� &R�[�Px��[email protected]�N����P����$��$�[�S���wz��鞙��]��s��}�#;Ύ��;N�/���pp�p����PpPQ��Q���qH�HI��ɩ�i�))���x>3��qrr��� �2sp��s(DDDd|TT|�Oğ���>�{ ��pk0P hL(L�� ��_�? These crops, however, were sold in small amounts and generated lower returns than cardamom. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues.

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