In some provinces of the Philippines, many Spaniards and foreign merchants intermarried with the rich and landed Malayo‑Polynesian local nobilities.  (p118) This remnant of the pre‑colonial royal and noble families continued to rule their traditional domain until the end of the Spanish regime. (p223) This explains why among the principales, those who had more wealth were likely to be elected to the office of gobernadorcillo (municipal governor). According to a recent survey, the number of Spanish citizens in the Philippines regardless of ethnolinguistic affiliation was about 6,300 of the Philippine population with the vast majority of them being actually Spaniard-Filipinos, but excluding Philippine citizens of Spanish descent. This page was last edited on 19 November 2020, at 05:49. PHILIPPINE HISTORY SPANISH ERA 2. constituted the Filipino educated class during the Spanish colonial period in thelate19th century • They were the middle class who were educated in Spanish and exposed to Spanish liberal and European nationalist ideals. Spain gave the natives – a mix of Malay, Chinese, Indian and small indigenous tribes – a colonial government to rule by the sword and what was essentially a state religion, Spanish Catholicism, which ruled by the cross. (p326)(p294), Principales tend to marry those who belong to their class, to maintain wealth and power. These principalities and lordships were inherited in the male line and by succession of father and son and their descendants. (p223)(p331) They wore a distinctive type of salakot, a Philippine headdress commonly used in the archipelago since the pre‑colonial period. The candidate proposed by the gobernadorcillo is the person presented by the members of the barangay.). , Distinctive staffs of office were associated with the Filipino ruling class.  It was the true aristocracy and the true nobility of the Spanish Philippines,(pp60–61)[g][h](p232–235) which could be roughly comparable to the patrician class of ancient Rome. Cf. This move was prevalent especially among those who have studied in Spain and other parts of Europe (Ilustrados). In fact more often the gobernadorcillo had to maintain government of his municipality by looking after the post office and the jailhouse, and by managing public infrastructure, using personal resources. CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS OF EARLY FILIPINO OTHER BURIAL PRACTICES Mourning period – relatives, family, wore white / refrained from eating meat or drinking wine / to show their deep sorrow, relatives hired professional mourners / to chant the good deeds of the dead 39. A festive banquet would be offered in the municipal or city hall where he would occupy a seat, adorned by the coat of arms of Spain and with fanciful designs, if his social footing was of a respectable antiquity. After Christianity was introduced by the Spanish, the Passion cycle was adapted into the native art. The principalía or noble class(p331) was the ruling and usually educated upper class in the pueblos of the Spanish Philippines, comprising the Gobernadorcillo, who was later referred to as Capitan Municipal (who had functions similar to a town mayor), Lieutenants of Justice, and the Cabezas de Barangay (heads of the barangays) who governed the districts, former Gobernadorcillos or Municipal Captains, and Municipal lieutenants in good standing during their term of office. Even though the gobernadorcillo's salary was not subject to tax, it was not enough to carry out all the required duties expected of such a position. The work of the church in … , The principalía was the first estate of the four echelons of Filipino society at the time of contact with Europeans, as described by Fr. The special salakot of the ruling upper class was often adorned with ornate capping spike crafted in metals of value like silver, or, at times, gold. "There were no kings or lords throughout these islands who ruled over them as in the manner of our kingdoms and provinces; but in every island, and in each province of it, many chiefs were recognized by the natives themselves. There was only a very small standing army to protect the Spanish government in the Philippines.  The majority of the Filipinos of Spanish descent are of Andalusian origin, while a minority are Catalan or Basque descents. During their period of seclusion, the girls are treated like royalty and are forbidden from working and being exposed to the sunlight. Their military functions were eclipsed by farming. Filipino (Tagalog) poetry . [ag] Furthermore, Chinese Gobernadorcillos were not given jurisdiction over municipal districts. Philippines - Philippines - The Spanish period: Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. (p107), The recognition of the rights and privileges of the Filipino Principalía as equivalent to those of the Hidalgos of Castile appears to facilitate entrance of Filipino nobles into institutions under the Spanish Crown, either civil or religious, which required proofs of nobility. San Buenaventura's 1613 Dictionary of the Tagalog language defines three terms that clarify the concept of principalía:(p99), The Spanish term Señor (lord) is equated with all these three terms, which are distinguished from the nouveau riche imitators scornfully called maygintao (man with gold or hidalgo by wealth, and not by lineage). (p100), After conquering Manila and making it the capital of the colonial government in 1571, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi noted that aside from the rulers of Cebu and of the capital, the other principales existing in the Archipelago were either heads or Datus of the barangays allied as nations; or tyrants, who were respected only by the law of the strongest. A caste system, like that used in the Spanish America, existed in the Philippines, with some explicit differences. The principalía and cuadrilleros (police patrol or assistance) formed two lines in front of the Gobernadorcillo. In Vigan, Ilocos Sur, excellently preserved examples of the houses of the noble Filipinos can be admired. family life. [c][d][e]:p1 cols 1–4 Later, wider conditions that define the principalía were stipulated in the norms provided by the Maura Law of 1893, which were never changed until Spain lost the Archipelago to the Americans. Also cf. (p33)(p4), A question remains after the cessession of Spanish rule in the Philippines regarding any remaining rank equivalency of Filipino Principalía. (pp124–125), The Jesuit priest Francisco Colin made an attempt to give an approximate comparison of it with the Visayan social structure in the middle of the seventeenth century. Fray Agapito Lope 1911 Manuscript, p. 2. Christianized Aetas who lived in Manila were not allowed to enter Intramuros and lived in areas designated for Indios. (Volume 4, pp 1106–1107 'Ethnic Headgear'), It was mentioned earlier that the royalties and nobilities of the Pre-colonial societies in the Visayas, Northern Mindanao, and Luzon (Cebu, Bohol Panay, Mindoro and Manila) also shared the many customs of royalties and nobles in Southeast Asian territories (with Hindu and Buddhist cultures), especially in the generous use of gold and silk in their costumes, as the Boxer Codex demonstrate. The Royal Cedula stipulates: "Bearing in mind the laws and orders issued by my Progenies, Their Majesties the Kings, and by myself, I order the good treatment, assistance, protection and defense of the native Indians of America, that they may be taken cared of, maintained, privileged and honored like all other vassals of my Crown and that, in the course of time, the trial and use of them stops.  These well‑guarded and protected highborn women were called "binokot",(pp290–291) the datus of pure descent (four generations) were called "potli nga datu" or "lubus nga datu",(p113) while a woman of noble lineage (especially the elderly) was addressed by the Visayans (of Panay) as "uray" (meaning: pure as gold), e.g., uray Hilway. Common disease during the Spanish period in the Philippines were diarrhea, dysentery, and leprosy. It is an accepted belief that the Spanish colonization of the Philippines started in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Spanish governor-general in the Philippines. By the middle of the 19th century, the Principalía's usual attire was black jacket, European trousers, salakot and colored (velvet) slippers. The fanciful designs referred to by Blair and Robertson hint of the existence of some family symbols of the, An example of a document pertaining to the Spanish colonial government mentioning the. Bahay na Bato is a Filipino colonial house during the Spanish period. From this system of the law of the strongest sprung intestinal wars with which certain dominions annihilate one another. More images are available in the FamilySearch Catalog at Philippines Civil Registration (Spanish Period), 1706-1911. (p26) This headgear was usually embossed also with precious metals and sometimes decorated with silver coins or pendants that hung around the rim. Curley, Jr., Walter J.P. Monarchs-in-Waiting. After the mass, they would usually go to the parish rectory to pay their respects to the parish priest. In the Visayas, only the oripuns were obliged to do that, and to pay tribute besides. Mexicans of European or Mestizo heritage known as AmÃ©ricanos (Americans) also arrived in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period. Continuing after Spanish Colonization, when Filipinos are born, they are immediately expected to play a specific role in their lives. This manner of sporting what originally was a European attire for men led the way to the development of the Barong, which later became the national costume for Filipino men. These group were called Mestizos (mixed-race individuals), who were born from intermarriages of the Spaniards and merchants with the indigenous Filipino (Austronesian/Malay/Malayo-Polynesian) natives. Some of these individuals married or inter-bred with the indigenous Filipino (Austronesian/Malay/Malayo-Polynesian) population while most married only other Spaniards. Armed attacks and propaganda increased, with an initial success that waned as Spanish reinforcements arrived. (Chapter VIII) The descendants of such chiefs, and their relatives, even though they did not inherit the Lordship, were held in the same respect and consideration, and were all regarded as nobles and as persons exempt from the services rendered by the others, or the plebeians (timawas). The Spanish colonial strategy was to undermine the native oral tradition by substituting for it the story of the Passion of Christ (Lumbera, p. 14).
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