nursing journal diabetes management

The presenting symptoms of hypoglycemia in older adults can be primarily neuroglycopenic (confusion, delirium, dizziness) rather than adrenergic (palpitation, sweating, tremors) (20). As these patients transition from one setting to another, or from one provider to another, their risk for adverse events increases. However, there is no clearly defined practical guide to switch patients who are admitted to LTC from SSI to basal–bolus insulin. In some patients, agents that might cause nausea, gastrointestinal disturbance, or excess weight loss (e.g., metformin or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist) may need to be discontinued, while in other patients it may be appropriate to withdraw therapy, including insulin, during the terminal stage. diabetes - Killion, Molly M. MS, RN, CNS; Article Content It is estimated that 6% to 9% of pregnancies are complicated by diabetes; approximately 90% of which are gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [ACOG], 2017). Institutional-level challenges include staff turnover and lack of familiarity with patients, restrictive diet orders, inadequate review of glucose logs and trends, lack of facility-specific diabetes treatment algorithms for blood glucose levels and provider notifications, and, often, lack of administrative buy-in to promote the roles of the medical director, the director of nursing, and the consultant pharmacist. The major sources of the glucose that circulates in the blood are through the absorption of ingested food in the gastrointestinal tract and formation of glucose by the liver from food substances. A two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial with … It is essential that nurses are aware of normal blood glucose levels, so that they can respond to complications caused by elevated and reduced blood glucose levels. These documents include a table that covers the essential information that should accompany every transitioning patient, an AMDA Universal Transfer Form, the Recommended Elements of a Discharge or Course-of-Treatment Summary, Practitioner Request for Notification of Medication Changes, and an Example of a Skilled Nursing Facility-to-Emergency Department transition. Possible strategies to manage diabetes in some of these clinical presentations are described in Table 3. Hypoglycemia is the leading limiting factor in the glycemic management of type 1 and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes (14–16). About this journal. Carbohydrates are the foods that often have the biggest im… While carbohydrate intake should be taken into consideration, “no concentrated sweets” or “no sugar” diet orders are ineffective for glycemic management and should not be recommended. Almost all of these guidelines emphasize the need to individualize care goals and treatments related to diabetes, the need to avoid sliding scale insulin (SSI) as a primary means of regulating blood glucose, and the importance of providing adequate training and protocols to LTC staff who may be operating without the presence of a practitioner for prolonged periods. Self-Management Education. (53) suggested that treatment and monitoring be stopped in patients with type 2 diabetes once they are in the terminal phase, but there was less consensus for the management of type 1 diabetes under similar scenarios. For those with evidence of cognitive dysfunction, end-of-life planning and a communication strategy should be undertaken while the individual can still make rational decisions. Submit an article Journal homepage. You will find relevant clinical articles, including must-read recommendations, Self-assessment and Journal Club articles for CPD, and related news and opinion. Thus, a five‐step process was used, namely formulation of the review question, literature search, critical appraisal of guidelines identified, data extraction and data analysis. E.S.H. Many other glucose-lowering agents are now available; Table 4 outlines the advantages, disadvantages, and caveats in using common glucose-lowering agents in the LTC population. Instead, a consistent carbohydrate meal plan that allows for a wide variety of food choices (e.g., general diet) may be more beneficial for both nutritional needs and glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes on mealtime insulin. These characteristics have frequently been used to exclude older individuals from randomized clinical trials. Some older adults live independently, some in assisted care facilities that provide partial support with medical management, and some in fully supervised LTC facilities. Commonly found comorbidities in LTC and strategies to improve diabetes care. insulin - The estimated total cost of diabetes in 2012 was $245 billion. Diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) addresses the comprehensive blend of clinical, educational, psychosocial, and behavioral aspects of care needed for daily self-management and provides the foundation to help all people with diabetes navigate their daily self-care with confidence and improved outcomes (1, 2). Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. These guidelines emphasize that frail patients with cognitive impairment may present with atypical symptoms, mainly neuroglycopenic or behavioral in nature. Oral glucose-lowering agents are preferred, as are simplified insulin regimens with a low hypoglycemic risk and avoidance of complex regimens with higher treatment burden, to reduce the risk of adverse effects and medication errors (48). Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. Diabetes management in older adults requires careful assessement of clincial, functional, and psychosocial factors. N.P. Care transitions are important times to revisit diabetes management targets, perform medication reconciliation, provide patient and caregiver education, reevaluate the patient’s ability to perform diabetes self-care behaviors, and have close communication between transferring and receiving care teams to ensure patient safety and reduce readmission rates. The middle range theory has the potential to masterfully influence individuals’ response to diabetes-related stress, thus resulting in better diabetes self-management behaviors. hypoglycaemia - R.R.K. is supported in part by a grant from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (K23-DK093583). Diabetes mellitus most often results in defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or even both. A review of the literature, Evaluation of a leadership development academy for RNs in long-term care, Evaluation and Management of Youth-Onset Type 2 Diabetes: A Position Statement by the American Diabetes Association, Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents: A Position Statement by the American Diabetes Association, Diabetes and Hypertension: A Position Statement by the American Diabetes Association, Institutional Subscriptions and Site Licenses, Special Podcast Series: Therapeutic Inertia, Special Podcast Series: Influenza Podcasts,,, Diabetes Management During Transitions of Care, Diabetes Management in Patients at End of Life (Including Issues for Palliative Care and Hospice Patients), Integration of Diabetes Management Into LTC Facilities. Glycemic goals in particular are dependent on the patient’s risk of hypoglycemia. The last 90 years have seen considerable advances in the management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Each year, the American DiabetesAssociation(ADA) publishes standards of care for patients with diabetes.2These standards are updated annually by a panel of experts in nursing, education, behavior, psychology, nutrition, pharmacology, and medicine. B, Physical activity and exercise are important in all patients and should depend on the current level of the patient’s functional abilities. Simplified treatment regimens are generally recommended. Original Article . NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. Often neither the provider responsible for the patient’s care nor the consulting pharmacists are present on-site at LTC facilities on a daily basis. Building on a core set of principles from these guidelines, this position statement elaborates on unique features of diabetes management in patients in LTC facilities and provides practical strategies to the clinical staff caring for them. The most important aspects of developing goals and strategies for a patient residing in LTC are described below. Duality of Interest. Using these forms can facilitate the development of a process for the transition of patients and improve safety and quality of diabetes care. Diabetes is more common in older adults, has a high prevalence in long-term care (LTC) facilities, and is associated with significant disease burden and higher cost. Table 5 provides strategies to convert insulin treatment from an SSI-based regimen to scheduled insulin therapy. Nurses have a key role to play in the prevention, treatment and management of diabetes. is supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) under grant number UB4HP19211 “Geriatric Education Centers.”. However, risk of hypoglycemia remains high with insulin in this population, especially due to irregular eating patterns, evolving health status, and the inappropriate use of SSI. Interventions for self-management of type 2 diabetes: An integrative review. Diagnosis requires careful examination of the lower limbs. It is important for clinicians to understand the characteristics, challenges, and barriers related to the older population living in LTC facilities. By clicking any link on this page you are giving your consent for us to set cookies. Nursing Standard. July/August 2018, Volume :43 Number 4 , page 231 - 231 [Free] Authors . These formulas generally have lower carbohydrate and higher monounsaturated fat content compared with standard formulas (SFs). At this point, care is focused on patient comfort and preparatory bereavement counseling for caretakers and patients, where appropriate. The integration of diabetes management into LTC facilities is important and requires an interprofessional team approach. The strongest predictors of severe hypoglycemia have been found to be advanced age, recent hospitalization, and polypharmacy (18,19), all of which are common in the LTC population. The risk of hypoglycemia is the most important factor in determining glycemic goals due to the catastrophic consequences in this population. Challenges specific to staff and practitioners include multiple changing treatment approaches, lack of team communication, excessive reliance on SSI, inappropriate dosing or timing of insulin, knowledge deficits, lack of comfort with new insulin and injectable agents, failure of timely stepwise advance in therapy, failure to individualize care, and therapeutic nihilism. To encourage nurses to take a leadership role in diabetes care, AJN, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, the American Diabetes Association, and the Joslin Diabetes Center convened an invitational symposium in September 2006 to examine the state of the science of diabetes self-care management, with an emphasis on exploring what nurses can do to help patients manage the disease … These patients are inclined to simply continue with their previous regimen. Framework for considering diabetes management goals. Clear and direct communication of treatment plans and follow-up expectations with patients and/or caregivers by health care providers is critical to decrease patient/family barriers. Prof MacLean of Guy's Hospital wrote in the Postgraduate Medical Journal in 1926 about the numerous challenges that faced patients and their healthcare professionals in delivering safe and effective diabetes care at that time. Diabetes Educator (TDE) is a peer-reviewed bi-monthly journal that serves as the official research publication of the Association of Diabetes Care and Education Specialists.TDE publishes papers on aspects of patient education; professional education; population, cardiometabolic and public health; and technology-based needs while serving as a … Nurses commonly encounter patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus in their practice. Table 6 delineates the practical recommendations for the LTC staff in management of specific situations in patients with diabetes. It is essential that nurses are aware of normal blood glucose levels, so that they can respond to complications caused by elevated and reduced blood glucose levels. Hypoglycemia risk is the most important factor in determining glycemic goals due to the catastrophic consequences in this population. Thus, glycemic goals for patients in LTC are guided by preventing hypoglycemia while avoiding extreme hyperglycemia. We do not capture any email address. This position statement provides a classification system for older adults in LTC settings, describes how diabetes goals and management should be tailored based on comorbidities, delineates key issues to consider when using glucose-lowering agents in this population, and provides recommendations on how to replace SSI in LTC facilities. At the patient level, improvement is recommended for advocacy and social support, disease state knowledge, empowerment and self-efficacy, health literacy/fluency, and cognitive status. Explore this zone to keep up with what’s happening in diabetes nursing. For older adults with diabetes, especially those with complex comorbidities, limited health literacy, cognitive impairment, five or more prescribed medications, or end-of-life care, the risk for adverse outcomes during these care transitions is even greater (30,31). The presence of cognitive impairment coupled with hypoglycemia unawareness puts some older adults with diabetes in LTC facilities at increased risk because they may not recognize and/or fail to communicate hypoglycemia to their caregivers. Once these challenges are identified, individualized approaches can be designed to improve diabetes management while lowering the risk of hypoglycemia and ultimately improving quality of life. Nutrition goals should be guided by, among other things, the patient’s prognosis and expressed preferences and include a discussion with the patient and family whenever possible. nursing management of gestational diabetes mellitus as no such analysis has been found. European Heart Journal, November 20, 2020 Lessons Learned on Increasing Nursing Student Diversity OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , November 19, 2020 To avoid dehydration and unintentional weight loss, restrictive therapeutic diets should be minimized. Management of these conditions requires an in-depth knowledge of blood glucose monitoring. Volume 6, Issue 1, 10 January 2019, Pages 70-91. Review. It is not always possible to decrease the frequency of capillary glucose monitoring in patients with type 1 diabetes. Common reasons for overly tight glycemic control in hospice patients were found to be 1) discomfort with discussions about reducing or stopping chronic medications, 2) concern about mild hyperglycemia especially by patients and caregivers, and 3) worry about not achieving quality indicators for glycemic control (51). In terms of A1C goals, the AMDA guidelines are also consistent with those recommended in the 2012 ADA consensus report (9). Ford-Dunn et al. E. Concerns about diabetes management at end of life have been reported by providers (45), but until fairly recently, no guidelines were available. Additionally, pending results, such as those regarding renal function after contrast dye studies are performed, may not be shared with the LTC facility, leading to test duplication. The authors acknowledge Dr. Jane L. Chiang's invaluable editorial contribution throughout the development of this position statement. Preventable costs occur because of unnecessary rehospitalizations, inconsistent patient monitoring, duplicative tests, medication errors, delays in diagnosis, and lack of follow-through on referrals (33,34). Comorbidities in patients with diabetes present challenges and special consideration when the patient has limited life expectancy. Healthy eating is a cornerstone of healthy living — with or without diabetes. type 1 diabetes - In response, LTC facilities have shifted away from therapeutic diets, offering a wider variety of food choices, addressing personal food preferences, and providing dining options in regard to time and type of meals. Standing orders for glucose monitoring and practitioner notification that are approved by the facility and the practitioner at the time of admission may be useful. MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. This report was written to highlight the main aspects of nursing management for patients with Type 2 diabetes. doi: 10.7748/ns.2018.e11250, This article has been subject to external double-blind peer review and checked for plagiarism using automated software, blood glucose - We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. 3. (1991). glycaemic control - © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Patients admitted to LTC facilities are not seen daily by a practitioner. These patients tend to have compromised self-care due to end-stage disease itself in addition to fatigue and drowsiness from medicines. 2. © 2020 by the American Diabetes Association. Barriers at the patient or family level may include limited disease state knowledge and erroneous or unrealistic expectations. type 2 diabetes, Alternatively, you can purchase access to this article for the next seven days. doi: 10.7748/ns.2018.e11250, Palk LE (2018) Assessing and managing the acute complications of diabetes mellitus. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Diabetes Care. The risk of renal or hepatic failure becomes more evident at this stage, and insulin or other glucose-lowering medication dosages may need to be reduced in both patients with type 1 diabetes and patients with type 2 diabetes. One of the more troubling complications of this disease is the risk of developing a foot ulcer. Available from, Sign In to Email Alerts with your Email Address. Once the challenges are identified, individualized approaches can be designed to improve diabetes management while lowering the risk of hypoglycemia and ultimately improving quality of life. Journal of diabetes science and technology, 4(3), 750-753. The heterogeneity of this population with regard to comorbidities and overall health status is critical to establishing personalized goals and treatments for diabetes. The Journal Impact 2019-2020 of Journal of Diabetes Nursing is 0.230, which is just updated in 2020.Compared with historical Journal Impact data, the Metric 2019 of Journal of Diabetes Nursing grew by 4.55 %.The Journal Impact Quartile of Journal of Diabetes Nursing is Q3.The Journal Impact of an academic journal is a scientometric Metric that reflects the yearly average … The effects of diabetes mellitus on wound healing. is a consultant for Sanofi and Novo Nordisk. insulin therapy - This team may be composed of practitioners (physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants), registered nurses, licensed practical/vocational nurses, certified nursing assistants, diabetes educators, dietitians, food service managers, consultant pharmacists, physical therapists, and/or social workers. E, Liberal diet plans have been associated with improvement in food and beverage intake in this population. diabetic ketoacidosis - These practitioners are responsible for the primary management of diabetes and can refer their patients with diabetes to specialty care (e.g., endocrinology, ophthalmology, renal care, and podiatry) and educational resources (e.g., a diabetes nurse educator, the nutrition clinic, and diabetes group management). Diabetes mellitus (DM)is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin, an anabolic hormone. Similarly, Angelo et al. was an advisory group member for AstraZeneca as part of a 1-day meeting. Discharge summaries often lack crucial information such as diagnostic test results, treatment or hospital course, discharge medications, test results pending at discharge, patient or family education, and follow-up plans (37). The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a nurse-led diabetes self-management education on glycosylated hemoglobin.

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